Carbon: Transformations in Matter and Energy
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Carbon: Transformations in Matter and Energy

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Carbon: Transformations in Matter and Energy




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Presentation on theme: "Carbon: Transformations in Matter and Energy"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Carbon: Transformations in Matter and Energy

Environmental Literacy Project

Michigan State University

Animals

UnitActivity 4.1 Molecular Models for Cows Moving and Functioning: Cellular Respiration

Slide2

Unit Map2

You are here

Slide3

Connecting Questions about Processes at Different Scales3

ScaleUnanswered QuestionsMacroscopic ScaleHow do cows move?Microscopic ScaleHow do a cow’s muscle cells get energy to contract the muscles and move?Atomic-Molecular ScaleWhat chemical change provides energy to the muscle cells?

Slide4

How do a cow’s muscle

cells get energy to contract the muscles and move?4

Food

Digestion

Energy:

Cellular

respiration

Slide5

Connecting the Atomic-Molecular Scale to the Macroscopic Scale

Chemical change

Slide6

Three Ways to Represent Molecules:Glucose (a Kind of Sugar)

6

Slide7

How atoms bond together in moleculesAtoms in stable molecules always have a certain number of bonds to other atoms:

Carbon: 4 bondsOxygen: 2 bondsHydrogen: 1 bondOxygen atoms do NOT bond to other oxygen atoms if they can bond to carbon or hydrogen instead.Chemical energy is stored in bonds between atomsSome bonds (C-C and C-H) have high chemical energyOther bonds (C-O and O-H) have low chemical energy

Slide8

Making the reactant molecules: glucose and oxygen

Complete Steps 1 and 2 in Part B of your worksheet.Remember that this process is happening in all of the cells in the cow. Today, let’s think about a muscle cell.

Slide9

9

Photo of reactant molecules: C6H12O6 (sugar) and O2 (oxygen)Start by making the molecules and energy units of the reactants and putting them on the reactants side, then rearrange the atoms and energy units to show the products.

Remember:

Atoms last foreve

r (so you can rearrange atoms into new molecules, but can’t add or subtract atoms). Energy lasts forever

(so you can change forms of energy, but energy units can’t appear or go away).

Chemical change

Reactants

Products

Glucose

Oxygen

Slide10

Important: When you are finished constructing the reactants, put all extra pieces away.

10

Slide11

Record your descriptions of the reactants

Record the numbers of atoms and chemical energy in your reactants.11

Slide12

Rearranging the Atoms to Make Product Molecules: Carbon Dioxide and Water Complete

Steps 3 and 4 in Part B of your worksheet.Remember that this process is happening in all of the cells in the cow. Today, let’s think about a muscle cell.

Slide13

13

Photo of product molecules: CO2 (carbon dioxide) and H2O (water)Start by making the molecules and energy units of the reactants and putting them on the reactants side, then rearrange the atoms and energy units to show the products.

Remember:

Atoms last foreve

r (so you can rearrange atoms into new molecules, but can’t add or subtract atoms). Energy lasts forever (so you can change forms of energy, but energy units can’t appear or go away).

Chemical change

Reactants

Products

Water

Carbon dioxide

Slide14

14

Comparing photos of reactant and product moleculesStart by making the molecules and energy units of the reactants and putting them on the reactants side, then rearrange the atoms and energy units to show the products.

Remember:

Atoms last forever (so you can rearrange atoms into new molecules, but can’t add or subtract atoms). Energy lasts forever (so you can change forms of energy, but energy units can’t appear or go away).

Chemical change

Reactants

Products

Water

Carbon dioxide

Glucose

Oxygen

Slide15

Record your descriptions of the products

Record the numbers of atoms and chemical energy in your products.15

Slide16

Reactants

Products

Chemical change

Glucose

Oxygen

Water

Motion and heat energy

Carbon Dioxide

16

What happens

to atoms and energy

in cellular respiration?

Slide17

Reactants

Products

Chemical change

Glucose

Oxygen

Water

Motion and heat energy

Carbon Dioxide

What happens

to carbon atoms and chemical energy

in cellular respiration?

17

Carbon atoms become part of carbon dioxide molecules and Chemical energy is transformed into energy for cell work and heat energy.

Slide18

Reactants

Products

Chemical change

Glucose

Oxygen

Water

Carbon Dioxide

18

What happens to atoms and energy during cellular respiration?

Motion and heat energy

Slide19

Reactants

Products

Chemical change

Glucose

Oxygen

Water

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon atoms become part of carbon dioxide molecules.

19

What happens to carbon atoms during cellular respiration?

Motion and heat energy

Slide20

Reactants

Products

Chemical change

Glucose

Oxygen

Water

Carbon Dioxide

Oxygen and hydrogen atoms become part of carbon dioxide and water molecules.

20

What happens to oxygen and hydrogen atoms during cellular respiration?

Motion and heat energy

Slide21

Reactants

Products

Chemical change

Glucose

Oxygen

Water

Carbon Dioxide

21

What happens to chemical energy during cellular respiration?

Motion and heat energy

Chemical energy is transformed into energy for cell work and heat energy.

Slide22

Reactants

Products

Chemical change

Glucose

Oxygen

Water

Carbon Dioxide

22

What happens to atoms and energy during cellular respiration?

Motion and heat energy

Atoms last forever! Energy lasts forever!

Slide23

Discuss with the classDid the number and type of atoms stay the same at the beginning and end of the chemical change? ____

Did the number of twist ties (representing energy) stay the same at the beginning and end of the chemical change? ____Why do the numbers of atoms and twist ties have to stay the same?23

Slide24

Writing a Chemical EquationChemists use

chemical equations to show how atoms of reactant molecules are rearranged to make product moleculesWriting the equation in symbols: Chemists use an arrow to show how reactants change into products:[reactant molecule formulas] product molecule formulas]Saying it in words: Chemists read the arrow as “yield” or “yields:”[reactant molecule names] yield [product molecule names]Equations must be balanced: Atoms last forever, so reactant and product molecules must have the same number of each kind of atomTry it: can you write a balanced chemical equation to show the chemical change when animals move (use energy)?

Slide25

25

Chemical equation for cellular respiration

C

6H12O6

+ 6O2  6 CO2

+ 6 H2O(in words: glucose reacts with oxygen to yield carbon dioxide and water)