Chapter 17: Benzene and
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Chapter 17: Benzene and

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Chapter 17: Benzene and




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Slide1

Chapter 17: Benzene and Aromaticity

TNT

8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide (

Capsaicin)

Buckminsterfullerene

Slide2

Key points & objectives:

Aromatic molecules are cyclic, conjugated, flat, and unusually stable

4n + 2 electrons (

n

= 0, 1, 2, ….

Hydrocarbon aromatics: benzene, naphthalene,

anthracene

, toluene,

xylylene

Heterocyclics

: pyridine,

pyrimidine

,

imidazole

,

pyrrole

,

thiophene

, furan,

indole

….

Molecular

orbitals

using Frost diagrams (inscribed circles)

Ring current

deshields

NMR signals – downfield

Slide3

Benzene

1

st isolated by Michael Faraday in 1825

From “

Benzoin

,” corrupt form of

the Arabic "

luban

jawi

” for the “frankincense of Java”

Slide4

Frankincense

Boswellia

sacra

triterpene

Cancer drug

anti-inflammatory

hepatotoxicity

Not “aromatic” in the technical sense

Slide5

Aromatic-fragrant

myrth

Commiphora

myrrha tree

Antiseptic, embalming agent, incense

Slide6

Cinnamon

Diabetes

Antimicrobial

antioxidant

(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-enal

cinnamaldehyde

Slide7

8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide (

Capsaicin)

Capsaicin

16,000,000 Scovilles

psoriasis

relieve the pain of peripheral neuropathytrigger apoptosis in human colon and lung cancer

Slide8

Vanilla

Tincture (ethanol extract) of vanilla

aphrodisiac

and a remedy for

fevers

catecholamines

(including

adrenaline

)

addictive

Slide9

Aromatic molecules

Flat

Conjugated

(4n +2) pi electrons

Unusually stable

Ring current (

deshielding

protons)

Slide10

Anesthetics & analgesics

Advil, and Motrin

Slide11

Sunscreens

Only complete UVA block

Slide12

12

Very high energy radiation (UVC) is currently blocked by the ozone layer (ozone hole issue)High energy radiation (UVB) does the most immediate damage (sunburns)But lower energy radiation (UVA) can penetrate deeper into the skin, leading to long term damage

Source: N.A. Shaath. The Chemistry of Sunscreens. In: Lowe NJ, Shaath NA, Pathak MA, editors. Sunscreens, development, evaluation, and regulatory aspects. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1997. p. 263-283.

Skin Damage

Slide13

Sources and Names of Aromatic Hydrocarbons

From high temperature distillation of coal tarHeating petroleum at high temperature and pressure over a catalyst

Slide14

Aromatics are less reactive than Alkenes

Slide15

Aromatics Nomeclature

Slide16

Aromatics Nomeclature

Slide17

Agent orange

Slide18

Polychlorinatedbiphenyls

PCB’s

Thermally stable, electrically insulating heat transfer liquid

Casting wax for lost wax process for making metal things

Slide19

Mueller 1948 Nobel Prize in Medicine

d

ichloro

diphenyltrichloroethane

Malaria mosquito

Slide20

Thermodynamic stability of benzene: Heats of Hydrogenation

Slide21

Monosubstituted Benzenes

Most monosubstituted aromatics are named using -benzene as the parent name preceded by the substituent name (as a prefix; all one word):

fluorobenzene

fluoro

nitro

ethyl

nitrobenzene

ethylbenzene

Slide22

Alkyl-substituted Benzenes

Alkyl substituted benzenes are named according to the length of the carbon chain of the alkyl group.With six carbons or fewer in the alkyl chain, they are named as ‘alkylbenzene.’e.g., propylbenzene:

Slide23

Alkyl-substituted Benzenes

With more than six carbons in the alkyl chain, they are named as a ‘phenylalkane,’ where the benzene ring is named as a substituent (phenyl) on the alkane chaine.g., 4-phenylnonane

4-phenylnonane

Slide24

The Benzyl Group

The benzyl group is a common name for a methyl substituted benzene (toluene) having substitution for one of the hydrogens on the methyl group.

the benzyl group benzyl

bromide benzyl alcohol

Slide25

Common Names of Subs. Benzenes

There are a number of nonsystematic (common) names commonly used for certain monosubstituted benzenes (see next slide)

These ten common names should be

memorized

.

These common names are used as base names when naming more their more highly substituted derivatives. Examples of these will be given later.

Slide26

Mono-substituted Benzene Nomenclature: Common Names

Slide27

Disubstituted Benzenes

Disubstituted benzenes can be named in one of two ways. Each method describes the relative positions of the two groups on the benzene ring.

Systematic

numbering

of the aromatic ring.

Using the

prefixes

ortho

-,

meta

-, or

para

-.

When numbering the ring carbons, carbon # 1 is always a substituted carbon.

The substituents are listed alphabetically.

Slide28

Disubstituted Benzenes

ortho- (abbreviated o- ) = 1,2-disubstituted (two groups on adjacent carbons on the ring)

Slide29

Disubstituted Benzenes

meta- (abbreviated m- ) = 1,3-disubstituted (two groups having one unsubstituted carbon between them)

Slide30

Disubstituted Benzenes

para- (abbreviated p- ) = 1,4-disubstituted (two groups on opposite sides of the ring)

Slide31

Disubstituted Benzenes

When one of the substituents changes the base name

, either o-, m-, and p- or numbers may be used to indicate the position of the other substituent. Carbon # 1 is always the carbon bearing the substituent that changes the base name.

p-bromoaniline or4-bromoaniline

o-chlorophenol or2-chlorophenol

1

2

3

4

1

2

Slide32

Common Names of Disubs. Benzenes

There are a few nonsystematic (common) names for disubstituted benzenes that you should be familiar with:

Slide33

Disubstituted Benzenes

Relative positions on a benzene ringortho- (o) on adjacent carbons (1,2)meta- (m) separated by one carbon (1,3)para- (p) separated by two carbons (1,4)Describes reaction patterns (“occurs at the para position”)

Slide34

Polysubstituted Benzenes

Polysubstituted benzenes must be named by numbering the position of each substituent on the ring (with more than two substituents, o-, m-, and p-can NOT be used.)The numbering is carried out to give the substituents the lowest possible numbers. Carbon #1 always has a substituent. List the substituents alphabetically with their appropriate #s.

2-ethyl-1-fluoro-4-nitrobenzene

1

2

3

4

Slide35

Polysubstituted Aromatics having a Common base name

Common names of the monosubstituted benzenes are used as parent names for polysubstituted aromatics when one of the substituents changes the base name.For such rings with common names, the carbon bearing the substituent responsible for the common name is always carbon #1. The substitutents are listed in alphabetical order.

5-bromo-2-chlorotoluene

1

2

3

4

5

toluene

chloro

bromo

Slide36

Polysubstituted Benzenes

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

4-bromo-2-ethyl-1-nitrobenzene

5-bromo-2-chlorophenol

Slide37

Polysubstituted Benzenes

1

3

4

5

6

6

5

4

3

2

2

1

2-bromo-6-chloro-4-nitrotoluene

1-bromo-3-chloro-2-ethyl-5-nitrobenzene

Slide38

38

A benzene substituent is called a phenyl group, and it can be abbreviated in a structure as “Ph-”.

Therefore, benzene can be represented as PhH, and phenol would be PhOH.

Naming Benzene as a Substituent

Slide39

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)

Metabolic byproducts of benzo [a] pyrene react with

DNA to form adducts, leading to carcinogenesis (cancer).

Slide40

40

Naphthalene Orbitals

Three resonance forms and delocalized electrons

Slide41

41

Figure 17.2

13C NMR Absorptions of Dibromobenzenes

The number of signals (lines) in the 13C NMR spectrum of a disubstituted benzene with two identical groups indicates whether they are ortho, meta, or para to each other.

Slide42

42

Figure 17.5

Drugs that Contain a Benzene Ring

Slide43

Heterocyclic Aromatics

Slide44

Heterocyclic Aromatics

Slide45

45

Pyridine

A six-membered heterocycle with a nitrogen atom in its ring electron structure resembles benzene (6 electrons)The nitrogen lone pair electrons are not part of the aromatic system (perpendicular orbital)Pyridine is a relatively weak base compared to normal amines but protonation does not affect aromaticity

Slide46

Protonation of Pyrroles and Pyridines

Slide47

47

Pyrrole

A five-membered heterocycle with one nitrogen electron system similar to that of cyclopentadienyl anionFour sp2-hybridized carbons with 4 p orbitals perpendicular to the ring and 4 p electrons Nitrogen atom is sp2-hybridized, and lone pair of electrons occupies a p orbital (6  electrons)Since lone pair electrons are in the aromatic ring, protonation destroys aromaticity, making pyrrole a very weak base

Slide48

Slide49

Structure and Stability of Benzene: Molecular Orbital Theory

Benzene reacts slowly with Br2 to give bromobenzene (where Br replaces H)This is substitution rather than the rapid addition reaction common to compounds with C=C, suggesting that in benzene there is a higher barrier

Slide50

50

Heats of Hydrogenation as Indicators of Stability

The addition of H2 to C=C normally gives off about 118 kJ/mol – 3 double bonds would give off 356kJ/mol Two conjugated double bonds in cyclohexadiene add 2 H2 to give off 230 kJ/molBenzene has 3 unsaturation sites but gives off only 206 kJ/mol on reacting with 3 H2 moleculesTherefore it has about 150 kJ more “stability” than an isolated set of three double bonds

Slide51

32 kcal/mole

Slide52

52

Benzene’s Unusual Structure

All its C-C bonds are the same length: 139 pm — between single (154 pm) and double (134 pm) bondsElectron density in all six C-C bonds is identicalStructure is planar, hexagonalC–C–C bond angles 120°Each C is sp2 and has a p orbital perpendicular to the plane of the six-membered ring

Slide53

53

Four structural criteria must be satisfied for a compound to be aromatic:1. A molecule must be cyclic. To be aromatic, each p orbital must overlap with p orbitals on adjacent atoms.

The Criteria for Aromaticity

Slide54

54

A molecule must be planar.All adjacent p orbitals must be aligned so that the  electron density can be delocalized.

Since cyclooctatetraene is nonplanar and not aromatic, it undergoes addition reactions just like those of other alkenes.

The Criteria for Aromaticity

Slide55

55

A molecule must be completely conjugated.Aromatic compounds must have a p orbital on every atom.

The Criteria for Aromaticity

Slide56

56

4. A molecule must satisfy Hückel’s rule, and contain a particular number of  electrons.

Benzene is aromatic and especially stable because it contains 6  electrons. Cyclobutadiene is antiaromatic and especially unstable because it contains 4  electrons.

Hückel's rule:

The Criteria for Aromaticity

Slide57

Hückel’s

rule refers to the number of

electrons, not the number of atoms in a particular ring.

Slide58

58

Why 4n +2?

When electrons fill the various molecular orbitals, it takes two electrons (one pair) to fill the lowest-lying orbital and four electrons (two pairs) to fill each of n succeeding energy levelsThis is a total of 4n + 2

Slide59

59

The combination of two p orbitals can be constructive—that is, with like phases interacting—or destructive, that is, with opposite phases interacting.

When two p orbitals of similar phase overlap side-by-side, a  bonding molecular orbital results.When two p orbitals of opposite phase overlap side-by-side, a * antibonding orbital results.

Bonding and Antibonding Orbitals

Slide60

60

Two atomic p orbitals combine to form two molecular orbitals.The bonding p MO is lower in energy than the two p orbitals.The * antibonding MO is higher in energy because a destabilizing node results, which pushes nuclei apart when orbitals of opposite phase combine.

Figure 17.8

Formation of π and π* Molecular Orbitals

Slide61

61

Since each of the six carbon atoms in benzene has a p orbital, six atomic p orbitals combine to form six  MOs.

Figure 17.9

 Molecular Orbitals for Benzene

Slide62

62

Inscribed Polygon Method of Predicting Aromaticity

Slide63

63

This method works for all monocyclic completely conjugated systems regardless of ring size.The total number of MOs always equals the number of vertices of the polygon.The inscribed polygon method is consistent with Hückel's 4n + 2 rule—there is always one lowest energy bonding MO that can hold two  electrons and the other bonding MOs come in degenerate pairs that can hold a total of four  electrons.

Inscribed Polygon Method of Predicting Aromaticity

Slide64

64

Figure 17.10

Inscribed Polygon Method of Predicting Aromaticity

Slide65

65

Buckminsterfullerene (C60) is a third elemental form of carbon. Buckminsterfullerene is completely conjugated, but it is not aromatic since it is not planar (CAREFULL!!!)It undergoes addition reactions with electrophiles in much the same way as ordinary alkenes.

Buckminsterfullerene—Is it Aromatic?

Slide66

66

Compounds With 4n  Electrons Are Not Aromatic (May be Antiaromatic)

Planar, cyclic molecules with 4 n  electrons are much less stable than expected (antiaromatic)They will distort out of plane and behave like ordinary alkenes4- and 8-electron compounds are not delocalized (single and double bonds)Cyclobutadiene is so unstable that it dimerizes by a self-Diels-Alder reaction at low temperatureCyclooctatetraene has four double bonds, reacting with Br2, KMnO4, and HCl as if it were four alkenes

Slide67

67

Aromatic Ions

The 4n + 2 rule applies to ions as well as neutral species Both the cyclopentadienyl anion and the cycloheptatrienyl cation are aromatic The key feature of both is that they contain 6  electrons in a ring of continuous p orbitals

Slide68

68

Aromaticity of the Cyclopentadienyl Anion

1,3-Cyclopentadiene contains conjugated double bonds joined by a CH2 that blocks delocalizationRemoval of H+ at the CH2 produces a cyclic 6-electron system, which is stableRemoval of H- or H• generates nonaromatic 4 and 5 electron systemsRelatively acidic (pKa = 16) because the anion is stable

Slide69

69

Cycloheptatriene

Cycloheptatriene has 3 conjugated double bonds joined by a CH2Removal of “H-” leaves the cationThe cation has 6 electrons and is aromatic

Slide70

70

1H NMR spectroscopy readily indicates whether a compound is aromatic. The protons on sp2 hybridized carbons in aromatic hydrocarbons are highly deshielded and absorb at 6.5–8 ppm, whereas hydrocarbons that are not aromatic absorb at 4.5–6 ppm.

NMR and Aromaticity

Slide71

71

Completely conjugated rings larger than benzene are also aromatic if they are planar and have 4n + 2  electrons.Hydrocarbons containing a single ring with alternating double and single bonds are called annulenes.To name an annulene, indicate the number of atoms in the ring in brackets and add the word annulene.

Larger Aromatic Rings

Slide72

72

[10]-Annulene has 10  electrons, which satisfies Hückel's rule, but a planar molecule would place the two H atoms inside the ring too close to each other. Thus, the ring puckers to relieve this strain.Since [10]-annulene is not planar, the 10  electrons cannot delocalize over the entire ring and it is not aromatic.

Hückel’s Rule and Number of  Electrons

Slide73

Biochemically Relevant Aromatics

Amino Acids

Slide74

Biologically Relevant Aromatics

NADH NAD+

Nicotinamide adeine dinucleotide, the biolgical hydrogenator