September 26, 2013

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InfraGard Nebraska & Bellevue University. Active Shooter: Preparedness and Response. 2. Active Shooter Situation Overview. Active Shooter situation is defined . as those in which an individual is “actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a confined and populated . ID: 401048 Download Presentation

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September 26, 2013

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September 26, 2013

InfraGard Nebraska & Bellevue University

Active Shooter: Preparedness and Response




Active Shooter Situation Overview

Active Shooter situation is defined as those in which an individual is “actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a confined and populated area”Although many perpetrators have a history of negative—sometimes violent behavior, there is still no single, accurate one-size-fits-all profile of an active shooter



Recent Active Shooter Incidents

On September 16, 2013, 12 people were killed and 8 injured at the Naval Ship Yard in Washington, DCOn December 20, 2012, 26 people were killed in Sandy Hook Elementary School, in Newtown, CTOn August 5, 2012, 7 people were killed and 1 injured in a Sikh temple in Oak Creek, WI On July 20, 2012, 12 people were killed and 58 were injured in a movie theater in Aurora, CO On January 8, 2011, 6 people were killed and 13 were injured (including U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords) in a supermarket parking lot in Tucson, AZ



Recent Active Shooter Incidents

On February 14, 2008, 6 people killed and 17 wounded at Northerner Illinois University in DeKalb IL. On December 5, 2007, 9 people were killed and 4 wounded at Von Maur in Omaha, NE On April 16, 2007, 32 people were killed and 17 were wounded at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, VA On November 5, 2007, 13 people were killed and 29 were injured on Fort Hood Army Base in Ft. Hood, TXMore than 250 people have been killed in the United States during what has been classified as active shooter and mass casualty incidents since the Columbine High School shootings in 1999.



Active Shooter Statistics

84 Active Shooter Events, 2000-201037% in business locations34% in schools17% in outdoor public venues41% used multiple weapons 4% of the attackers wore body armorMedian number of people killed was 2



Active Shooter Data

71% of the attackers just walked into the location49% of the attackers committed suicide17% of the attackers were killed34% of the attackers were arrested37% of the attacks were over in under 5 minutes63% of the attacks were over in under 15 (12) minutesSource: John Nicoletti, Ph.D. (Nicoletti-Flater Associates) as provided to PERF 4/22/13



Who does this? No Profile Exists

Statistics on 35 Active Shooter events in 2012:57% of the attackers were insiders (known)63% of the attackers broadcasted a perceived injustice71% of the victims initially targeted were the focus of the perceived injustice74% of the attackers entered through the main entrance



Active Shooter Motivation

While motivations for active shooter incidents are difficult to fully determine, some common “triggers” may include: Loss of significant relationshipsFeelings of humiliation/rejectionChanges in financial statusMajor adverse changes to life circumstancesLoss of jobChanges in living arrangementsOverreaction to workplace changesExpressions of paranoia or depressionExploiting or blaming others




Many active shooters were described as “social isolates,” harbored feelings of hate or anger, and/or had some reported contact with mental health professionalsFew had previous arrests for violent crimes



Behavioral Indicators

Many offenders may display certain behaviors during pre-attack planning. These predatory behaviors may be observable to persons familiar with the offender. Studies on shootings vary; however, all conclude that in approximately 80% to 90% of shootings, at least one person had information that the attacker was thinking about or planning the attack. Some of these behaviors may include:Development of a personal grievanceContextually inappropriate and recent acquisition of multiple weaponsInappropriate and recent escalation in target practice and weapons training



Behavioral Indicators (cont)

Recent interest in explosives and improvised explosive devices (IEDs)Inappropriate and intense interest or fascination with previous active shootings or mass attacksMany offenders experienced a significant real or perceived personal loss in the weeks and/or months leading up to the attack, such as a death breakup, divorce, or loss of a job.



Threat Assessment Teams

Research shows that perpetrators of targeted acts of violence engage in both covert and overt behaviors preceding their attacksOne of the most useful tools a facility can develop to identify, evaluate, and address these troubling signs is a multidisciplinary Threat Assessment Team (TAT)The TAT should be multidisciplinary and should meet your facility needsInclude mental health professionals, human resources, security director, general counsel, and law enforcement who will analyze the behavior to provide holistic threat management assessmentOnce a Course of Action is developed, the implementation of additional protective measures should be considered to prevent violenceUniversity of Nebraska Lincoln -- Association of Threat Assessment Professionals (ATAP)



Law Enforcement Efforts

Facilities must foster a close working relationship with local law enforcement agencies to evaluate possible risk of violenceBest practices and lessons learnedJointly map out incident management proceduresTours of the facility to enhance their familiarization of the buildingInvolve emergency services responders from multiple agencies in facility training and exercises to improve response reactionsLaw enforcement agencies are developing standard response protocol for multiple law enforcement agency responseAdvanced FBI Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training (ALERRT)



Vulnerability Assessment

When developing plans for an adaptive threats (i.e., active shooter) examining plans “through the eyes of the adversary” can lead to significant improvements and a higher probability of success. This process is known as” “Red-Teaming”.Conduct a vulnerability assessment to identify vulnerabilities in preventing, mitigating, and responding to an active shooter/mass casualty incident. The assessment should encompass:Security program Employee, contractor, and vendor screening and background check programAccess control procedures Physical security programElectronic security systemsEmergency communication systemEmergency preparedness program Executive Protection



Creating an Emergency Action Plan

To best prepare your staff for an active shooter situation, create an Emergency Action Plan (EAP), and conduct training exercises. Together, the EAP and training exercises will prepare your staff to effectively respond and help minimize loss of lifeComponents of an Emergency Action Plan:Emergency notification procedures (Internally and Externally)Lockdown proceduresEvacuation /Reverse evacuationEmergency escape procedures and route assignments (i.e., floor plans, safe areas), and rally points Employee accountability Bomb threat (telephone/suspicious package)Family reunification pointsEmergency contact information for emergency services, hospitals, and key personnelMedia Response Plan



Creating an Emergency Action Plan

Ensure that plans assess and provide for functional needs:Hearing or sightMobilityLimited or no English proficiencyIntegrate tenant organizations within the building into the EAP, emergency notification system, and exercises Integrate tenants into Threat Assessment Team process



Pre-Incident Planning

Human Resources Department Responsibilities:Conduct comprehensive employee/contractor screening and background checks Publicize Workplace Violence policy Create a system for reporting signs of potentially violent behaviorEnsure managers and supervisors are trained to detect abnormal behavior and elevate high risk behavior to HR. Make counseling services available to employeesDevelop an EAP, which includes policies and procedures for dealing with an active shooter situation and other risks as well as after action plan



Pre-Incident Planning

Facility Manager ConsiderationsInstitute access controls (i.e., keys and electronic access control systems)Provide Operators/Security Control Center emergency action checklistsDevelop pre-recorded Lock-Down and Active Shooter response messages Do not utilize “Code words’ (e.g. Code Silver); use plain language Ensure public address system can be heard throughout the facility (i.e. restrooms, entrances, mechanical rooms, elevators, and stairways)Provide alternate emergency notification capability (i.e., E2Campus text messaging, email, and computer screen messagesDesignate trained “Floor Monitors” to lead response in their areasAssemble “Emergency Go-Kits” containing: radios, floor plans, staff roster/staff emergency contact numbers, first aid kits, flashlightsDesignate “Safe Rooms” that will protect individuals during a Lock-DownEnsure Safe Rooms and office doors can be locked from inside the room Position telephones and first aid kits in Safe Rooms



Pre-Incident Planning (cont)

Place removable floor plans near entrances and exits for emergency respondersDevelop your emergency action plan in close coordination with local law enforcement and fire department agencies for lessons learned and best practices. Is security technology, such as closed circuit television, in place to assist law enforcement in locating the shooter(s) and victims?Consider providing law enforcement copies of building floor plans?What procedures are available to provide facility access to emergency responders?Are there safety concerns as first responders enter process areas?Enroll in the DHS Government Emergency Telecommunication System (GETS) and Wireless Priority Service (WPS)



Incident Recovery Considerations

Addressing Victims and FamiliesHas the facility established a family hotline?What is the process to assist with victim identification?Who is responsible for gathering information related to victim identities, extent of injuries, and what hospitals are being utilized?What is the procedure to notify the family members? Who performs the notifications and are they trained for this responsibility?Will facility personnel procure counselors for employees and families?How will concerns about returning to work be handled?Communicating InternallyWhat instructions will management give to the employees and how will it be communicated? Should they return to their homes, remain onsite at a specified location, go to another site, etc.?How will management communicate with families?



Incident Recovery Considerations (cont.)

Communication ExternallyWho is the designated official for responding to media inquiries? What information and details will facility personnel provide to the media that will ease community concerns without inciting panic or hindering the investigation?Continuing Business OperationsWhat are the business recovery/continuity plans? Does the facility have a Business Continuity Plan?Who will make re-entry decisions?Who will provide safety and security debriefings?What actions are needed to ensure employees feel safe?How will the facility continue operating with limited production or with certain areas of the facility designated a crime scene?



Training Program -- Trained versus Untrained



Workplace Violence & Active Shooter Training

Integrate workplace violence and active shooter training into new employee (contractor) orientation and annual recurring emergency preparedness training Exercise facility lockdown and active shooter response protocols through drills, table-top, and full-scale exercises Supervisors should discuss “what if” scenarios with employees and contractors to rehearse their plan of action and to identify gaps in planning and training.



The Department of Homeland Security has released Active Shooter, What You Can Do (IS-907), a new free online training course available through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Emergency Management Institute (EMI) at Classroom training lesson plans and videos for employee training


Training and Outreach Material


Training and Outreach Materials

Materials consist of three products:Basic Guide BookBreak Room PosterPocket Emergency Measures Guide


To download these materials visit:


Responding to an Active Shooter Situation

In an active shooter situation, you should quickly determine the most reasonable way to protect your own life. You should:Evacuate: If there is an accessible escape path, attempt to evacuate the premisesHide Out: If evacuation is not possible, find a place to hide where the active shooter is less likely to find youTake Action: As a last resort, and only when your life is in imminent danger, attempt to disrupt and/or incapacitate the active shooterIt is important for employees to be trained so that they can react if they are ever confronted with an active shooter situation These situations evolve quickly, therefore, quick decisions could mean the difference between life and deathIf you are in harm’s way, you will need to decide rapidly what the safest course of action is based on the scenario that is unfolding before you




If you suspect a potential active shooter situation, you must quickly determine the most reasonable way to protect your own life; if there is an accessible escape path, attempt to evacuate the premisesAlways have an escape route and plan in mind even if you are just visitingMake sure to leave your belongings behindBe sure to:Warn others not to enter an area where the active shooter may beHelp others escape, if possibleEvacuate regardless of whether others agree to followDo not attempt to move wounded peopleKeep your hands visibleFollow the instructions of law enforcement officers


Call 911 when it is safe to do so.


Hide Out

If safe evacuation is not possible, find a place to hide where the active shooter is less likely to find you. Your hiding place should:Be out of the active shooter’s viewProvide protection if shots are fired in your direction (i.e., office with a closed and locked door)Not be a trap or restrictive of your options for movementTo prevent an active shooter from entering your hiding place:Lock the doorBlockade the door with heavy furnitureClose, cover, and move away from the door



Take Action

As a last resort, and only when your life is in imminent danger, should you attempt to incapacitate the shooter by acting with physical aggressionAct as aggressively as possible against him/herThrow items and improvise weaponsYellCommit to your actionsIf neither running nor hiding is a safe option, as a last resort when confronted by the shooter, adults in immediate danger should consider trying to disrupt or incapacitate the shooter by using aggressive force and items in their environment, such as fire extinguishers and chairs.



Assisting Emergency Responders

When possible, provide the following information to law enforcement officers or 911 operators:Location of the active shooterNumber of shooters, if more than onePhysical description of the shooter(s)Number and type of weapons held by the shooter(s)Number of potential victims at the locationThe primary goal of law enforcement is to eliminate the threat and stop the active shooterLaw Enforcement will not be able to stop to help injured persons until the environment is safeOfficer(s) will take command of the situation; expect to experience officers shouting orders and even pushing individuals to the ground for their safety




After an incident occurs, it is important to manage the consequences, and analyze the lessons learnedPost-event activities includes accounting for missing persons, determining a method for notifying families of victims, and referring individuals at the scene for follow-up care, including grief counselingTo facilitate effective planning for future emergencies, analyze the recent active shooter situation for lessons learned, create an after action report, refine the EAP, and conduct training



Greg Hollingsead

Protective Security Advisor - NE









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