Media Use in the Middle East:

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An Eight-Nation Survey. Northwestern University in Qatar. Everette. E. Dennis, Justin D. Martin & Robb Wood. Northwestern University in Qatar. 2013. 1.0. 2. Introduction & Key Findings. Many respondents see improvement news reporting in the Arab World over the past two years. . ID: 610988 Download Presentation

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Media Use in the Middle East:




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Slide1

Media Use in the Middle East:An Eight-Nation Survey

Northwestern University in QatarEverette E. Dennis, Justin D. Martin & Robb WoodNorthwestern University in Qatar

2013

Slide2

1.0

2

Introduction & Key Findings

Slide3

Many respondents see improvement news reporting in the Arab World over the past two years. A majority of adults in six of the eight countries surveyed agree that the quality of reporting has improved. Perceptions of news media credibility within individual countries vary widely. Saudi Arabia, Jordan and UAE are the most optimistic; Egypt, Lebanon and Tunisia less so.Internet usage varies widely by country. Strongest usage in the Gulf countries – UAE, Qatar, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia; lowest usage in Egypt.Most respondents believe people should be able to express their opinions online, whatever those opinions may be. However… Majorities in Lebanon, KSA, Qatar and Tunisia would like to see tighter regulation of the Internet in their country. Those in Bahrain, Jordan and UAE have mixed opinions about regulation.

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Key Findings

Slide4

Social networking is near universal among those online and no other site comes close to Facebook. Many also use Twitter and Google+ in Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and UAE, less so in other countries.Al Jazeera is the most popular information source for news and current events across the region. Mentions of Al Jazeera vary by country, but a portion of people in every country surveyed name it unaided as a top source for news. Respondents in Egypt are less connected. While TV usage is strong, respondents show low usage of other media sources.In most countries, TV trumps Internet as the most important source for news and current events. In Qatar, the Internet is a considerably more important source than TV.In Qatar, Bahrain, Lebanon and UAE, respondents are more likely to access the Internet in English than Arabic.

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Key Findings

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Face-to-face survey conducted December 2012 - April 2013*General population sample, 18 years and older

Methodology

TOTALResponse RateQUOTASNationalArab ExpatAsian ExpatOtherBahrain125083%75198276125Egypt125292%1252---Jordan***125075%1044206--KSA125281%848153150101Lebanon125670%123223-1Qatar**91954%242290284103Tunisia125021%1150--100UAE126470%313297441213TOTAL9693683210671151643

Method

Audience

* Survey conducted via telephone in Qatar. **Number of interviews to date. The final sample size will be 1250.***197 respondents are Palestinian.

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4.0

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Media Usage

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Highest internet penetration is in Gulf countries – UAE, Qatar, Bahrain and KSA – the countries with higher incomes, higher education levels and widest range of ethnic diversity. Highest usage of all media in Bahrain, lowest in Egypt.

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Media Use

% Use Medium

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS

Q11. During a typical week, how many hours do you spend on the following activities not online? (Total minus ‘Do not spend time doing this activity/Don’t know/Refused’)

Q14. Do you currently use the internet?

Slide8

Languages

Used to Access the Internet

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BASE: INTERNET USERS

Q21. Which languages do you use to access media?: Internet

Those in Qatar, Bahrain, Lebanon and UAE are more likely to use the Internet in English than Arabic. In the other countries, at least

one

in

four use the Internet in English. French is popular in Tunisia.

% Language Used

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5.0

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Internet Usage

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In most countries, Internet users tend to have wireless access. The greatest disparity between Internet usage and usage of wireless handheld devices is in Tunisia.

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Use of Wireless Handheld Devices

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS

Q14. Do you currently use the internet? Q26. Do you use the Internet through wireless handheld devices such as a mobile phone or tablet?

AVG: 65%

AVG: 52

%

Slide11

Smart phones and laptops are popular in most countries; tablets are less prevalent.

Qatar reports the highest level of tablet usage.

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Wireless Devices Used

% Use Device

BASE: USE WIRELESS HANDHELD DEVICES

Q28. Which wireless handheld device(s) do you use?

Slide12

Almost everyone online uses social networking sites. Usage of these sites is

lowest in Qatar.

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Use of Social Networking Sites

3.14.13.32.32.92.94.12.7Hours Per DayAvg: 3.2

% Use Social Networking Sites

BASE: INTERNET USERSQ35. How much time in a typical day do you spend using social networking sites? (Total minus ‘Do not use social networking sites/Don’t know/Refused’)

AVG: 93%

Slide13

Nearly everyone is on Facebook. More than half in Bahrain, KSA and UAE are also on Twitter and Google+. Fewer use Instagram or LinkedIn.

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Social Networking Sites Used

BASE: USE SOCIAL NETWORKING SITESQ36. Which of the following social networking sites do you use?  

Sites Used (%)

Slide14

Those in Gulf countries – Qatar, Bahrain, KSA and UAE – are more likely to complete transactions online. Fewer manage investments online.

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Online Transactions

BASE: INTERNET USERSQ36A. Now I’d like you to think about different transactions people do in their everyday lives like banking or shopping. How frequently do you use the Internet for the following purposes?

% Do Activity at All

(Daily, Weekly, Monthly,

Less than Monthly)

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Media Importance & Perceived Reliability

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TV, Internet and interpersonal sources are most important for news and current events.

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Importance of

Medium

for News & Current Events

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTSQ18. For news and current events, how important is each of the following to you as a source? Use the following scale: 1=Not important at all, 2=Not important, 3=Neutral/Undecided, 4=Important, 5=Very Important.

% Very Important/

Important

Slide17

The majority in UAE find all sources reliable. Those in Egypt and Tunisia are less likely to find the Internet, newspapers and radio reliable. Those in Tunisia also do not find TV reliable.

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Perceived Reliability of Information by Medium

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTSQ20. How much of the information from the following sources do you feel is generally reliable? Use a scale of 1 to 5 where “1” means none of it is reliable and “5” means that all of it is reliable.

%

All or Most Are Reliable

Slide18

Most respondents believe people should be able to express their opinions online, whatever those opinions may be.

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Freedom of Expression on the Internet

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTSQ38.2. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Use a scale of 1 to 5 where “1” means strongly disagree and “5” means strongly agree. Remember that you can choose any number between 1 and 5.

It is okay for people to express their ideas on the Internet, even if they are unpopular (%)

Slide19

Majorities in Lebanon, KSA, Qatar and Tunisia want tighter regulation of the Internet in their countries; those in Bahrain, Jordan and UAE have mixed opinions about regulation.

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Regulation of the Internet

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTSQ38.8. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Use a scale of 1 to 5 where “1” means strongly disagree and “5” means strongly agree. Remember that you can choose any number between 1 and 5.

The Internet in my country should be more tightly regulated than it is now (%)

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9.0

20

Perceptions of News Media

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Those in Jordan and KSA mostly believe the quality of news reporting in the Arab World has improved over the past two years; those in Lebanon and Tunisia are less likely to agree.

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Increase in Perceived Quality of News Reporting

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTSQ39A. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Use a scale of 1 to 5 where “1” means strongly disagree and “5” means strongly agree. Remember that you can choose any number between 1 and 5.

The Quality of News

Reporting

in

the Arab World Has Improved Over the Past Two Years (%)

Slide22

Those in Jordan , KSA and UAE mostly feel news media in their country are credible; Respondents in Egypt, Lebanon and Tunisia find their news media far less credible.

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Credibility of News Media

News Media in

Your

Country Are

Credible (%)

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS

Q39B. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Use a scale of 1 to 5 where “1” means strongly disagree and “5” means strongly agree. Remember that you can choose any number between 1 and 5.

Slide23

People are most interested in local and national news. Those in the Gulf countries – Qatar, Bahrain, KSA and UAE – favor regional and international more than respondents in the other countries.

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Local vs. International News

%

Follow

Very Closely/Closely

BASE: ALL

RESPONDENTS

Q40. How closely would you say you follow each type of news and current events?

1=Not at all closely, 2=Somewhat closely, 3=Closely, 4=Very closely.

Slide24

10.0

24

Top News Outlets

Slide25

Top News OutletsBased on Top 3 Mentioned

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BASE: ALL RESPONDENTSQ41. Please list your top three sources for news and current events (news organizations) and specify the type of media outlet that each source belongs to.

Average of

All Countries

Al Jazeera is the top news source in the region overall, but in varying level by country.

QatarBahrainEgyptJordan Al Jazeera 38%Al Arabiya 12%BBC 6%The Times 5%AL Sharq 4%Google 4%Facebook 3%MBC 3%CNN 3%Al Rai 3%Geo news 3%Google 26%Bangla News 21%Geography 19%Al Bahrain forum 12%Facebook 11%MBC 11%Al Watan 10%Al Wasseet 10%BBC 8%Twitter 8%Al Jazeera 4%Al Hayat 23%Al Kanat Al Oula 23%CBC 21%Al Jazeera 20%Al Nahar 12%Al Fada'ia Al Masria 10%Dream 10%Al Mihwar 9%Al Nile Lil Akhbar 8%Al Akhbar 4%Al Jazeera 62%JTV Satellite 48%Al Arabiya 29%Al Haqiqah/ Al Dewaliah 26%Noor Al Ordon 23%MBC 10%Saraya 7%Jowssat 7%Al Rai 5%BBC 4%

KSA

Lebanon

Tunisia

UAE

Al

Arabiya

46%

Al

Jazeera 41%

MBC

21%

Al

Ikhbariah

10%

Panorama

6%

Al

Riyadia 5%

Al

Sharq

Al

Awsat

4%

mbc

fm 4%

BBC

4%

Twitter

3%

LBC

55%

Al

Jadeed 44%

MTV

38%

OTV

13%

Al

Manar

11%

Future

TV 10%

Al

Jazeera

7%

Al

Nahar

5%

assafir

3%

Al

Arabiya

3%

Facebook

52%

shams

fm 37%

hanabel

33%

jsc

30%

al

sareh

16%

Sayidaty

14%

nesma

12%

rtci

radio 9%

Al

Jazeera 9%

Al

Arabiya

9%

Al

Jazeera

28%

Gulf

news 21%

Al

Arabiya

19%

Google

17%

MBC

11%

Facebook

10%

Al

Khaleej

9%

Al

Itihad

Newspaper 8%

ZEE

NEWS 8%

Abu

Dhabi 8%

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Drilling Down:

Exploring Qatar Data with an Interactive Site

Slide27

Media Use in the Middle East:An Eight-Nation Survey

Northwestern University in Qatar

24 April 2013

Slide28

Internet and interpersonal sources are of particular importance for news and current events among those from outside the region. Newspapers and radio tend not to be used for entertainment.

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Importance of Media Sources for News & Entertainment - Qatar Only

News & Current Events

Entertainment

BASE: ALL QATAR RESPONDENTSQ18. For news and current events, how important is each of the following to you as a source? Q19. For entertainment, how important is each of the following to you as a source? Use the following scale: 1=Not important at all, 2=Not important, 3=Neutral/Undecided, 4=Important, 5=Very Important.

% Very Important/Important

Slide29

Media usage is fairly similar across ethnic groups in Qatar.

More expats from outside the region read newspapers and books.

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Use of Media Sources – Qatar Only

BASE: ALL QATAR RESPONDENTSQ11. During a typical week, how many hours do you spend on the following activities not online? (Total minus ‘Do not spend time doing this activity/Don’t know/Refused’) Q14. Do you currently use the internet?

% Use Media Source

Slide30

While Qatari Nationals access all media in Arabic, about half also watch TV and access the Internet in English.

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Languages Used to Access Media - Qatar Only

% Language Used

TV

Internet

BASE: QATAR

RESPONDENT

S WHO USE MEDIA SOURCE

Q21. Which languages do you use to access media?

Newspaper

Slide31

Internet usage is higher among men and those who are younger (<45), more educated and employed.

31

Who Is Online in Qatar?

BASE: ALL QATAR

RESPONDENTSQ14. Do you currently use the internet?

Gender

Age

Income

Education

Nationality

Language

Work

Student


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