Animal, Plant & Soil Science Animal, Plant & Soil Science

Animal, Plant & Soil Science - PowerPoint Presentation

debby-jeon . @debby-jeon
Uploaded On 2016-02-28

Animal, Plant & Soil Science - PPT Presentation

Lesson C58 Managing Animal Health PPT APSR C58 EUnit 010089 Interest Approach Bring in a pair of tattooing pliers and show the class Write a number on the board that would be used in tattooing cattle eg A24 or B56 Have the students attempt to write the number backwards on a sheet ID: 234967

animal animals amp health animals animal health amp good problems disease treating records preventing parasites dairy management diseases practices maintenance healthy important




Presentation Transcript


Animal, Plant & Soil Science

Lesson C5-8Managing Animal Health


E-Unit: 010089Slide2

Interest Approach

Bring in a pair of tattooing pliers and show the class. Write a number on the board that would be used in tattooing cattle (e.g., A24 or B56). Have the students attempt to write the number backwards on a sheet of paper. Ask one student to put the numbers in the tattooing pliers. Have the student with the pliers press the tattoo onto a sheet of paper. Compare the results an the paper. Ask other students to try to tattoo the correct number on the paper.Slide3


Identify good animal health management practices.Discuss beneficial record keeping programs for dairy.Explain common maintenance needs to promote animal health.

Describe identification possibilities for various animals.Slide4


branding castrating

dehorning docking earmarks heat mastitis tattooingSlide5

What are good health management practices?

Every type of animal needs specific management practices for good health.

There are some broad similarities between some species and breeds. It is better to prevent problems before they occur. Many of the same management practices can be used for all animals.Slide6

What are good health management practices?

A. Always make sure that you purchase your animals from a reputable person.

If you start out with healthy animals, it will be less expensive and less stressful. If you start out with infected animals, you may deal with the problem for a very long time.Slide7

What are good health management practices?

B. Obtain animals only if you have a specific use for them in mind.

Bringing in new animals always presents some risk of introduction of disease and other problems.If you are not committed to completing the necessary paperwork, do not buy animals that will require it for proper health records.C. Clean and disinfect all areas before bringing animals into an area.Slide8

What are good health management practices?

D. Ensure that all animals are fed properly.

Many problems can be avoided with proper nutrition.E. Keep animals out of weather that they do not tolerate well, in order to avoid illnesses and discomfort.F. Keep track of sexual maturity of animals so that they are not bred at the wrong time or to the wrong mate.Slide9

What are good health management practices?

G. Monitor animals daily so that you are aware of what is normal and will notice when anything is not normal.

H. Dispose of dead animals properly to avoid further infection.I. Separate sick animals from healthy animals until you are positive the disease or parasite under control.J. Call a veterinarian for any situation beyond the control of the owner or manager.Slide10

What records should be kept to encourage good animal health

with dairy animals?

Animals have specific record keeping needs, depending on the species or breed, to encourage good health. Dairy animals require more paperwork than most. The breeding program of a dairy is essential to the success of the business.

Common ailments in dairy cattle can be tracked and avoided with proper records of herd health.Slide11

What records should be kept to encourage good animal health

with dairy animals?

A. Records of dairy animals are done on an individual basis. Each cow is monitored for pregnancy, production, and milk quality. Milking dairy cows two to three times each day at consistent times helps maintain health.

Studies show that milking more frequently decreases mastitis and seems to improve general udder health.


is an infection of the milk-secreting glands.Slide12

What records should be kept to encourage good animal health

with dairy animals?

B. Detailed records of breeding programs should be kept, including heat detection and heat cycles. Heat describes the time in a cow’s estrus cycle when she can get pregnant. Breeding records will help to determine if there is a reproductive problem with the animal.Slide13

What records should be kept to encourage good animal health

with dairy animals?

C. Good animal health requires keeping track of growth and mortality rates. By logging this information, you may notice patterns that can be addressed.Slide14

What records should be kept to encourage good animal health

with dairy animals?

D. Keeping records of genetic information is beneficial. There might be undesirable traits that are passed on to new generations. Genetic records can also be used to show that an animal has quality offspring.E. Pregnancy records need to be maintained. Slide15

Simple maintenance can help to promote animal health.

Proper management of common maintenance tasks can save time and money in the animal business.

Many of these practices can be performed by, or with the help of, a veterinarian. Proper timing is the key to successful maintenance. Some maintenance practices are discussed here.Slide16

Simple maintenance can help to promote animal health.

A. Dehorning of animals is common to ensure that the animals do not hurt each other, themselves, or humans.

Dehorning is the removal of horns by use of chemicals, hot irons, saws, or other means. There are several methods of dehorning.

A person should always make sure to have the proper knowledge and equipment before dehorning an animal. Slide17

Simple maintenance can help to promote animal health.

B. Castrating

is removing the testicles from male animals so they cannot breed.Often males are less aggressive and easier to handle after being castrated.C. Docking of tails is a common practice for piglets and lambs. Docking

is the term used to describe removing the animal’s tail.Slide18

Simple maintenance can help to promote animal health.

D. Bedding animals is a very important health management practice.

Animals that have clean, dry bedding are less likely to be sick from parasites, diseases, drafts, cold, and so on. Using the proper kind and amount of bedding is essential.Slide21

Simple maintenance can help to promote animal health.

E. Removal of manure and urine is necessary.

Many diseases are passed through feces. Removing the feces will decrease the occurrence of contamination.F. The animal facility should be kept free of rats, birds, and other animals that spread diseases.Slide22

Healthy Environments for Animals

Good sanitation is important to good healthFactors related to good sanitationKeeping facilities and animals clean

Use of clean equipmentFeeders, milking equip, breeding equip, needles & syringes, surgical equipSyringe – an instrument used for giving injections or to draw body fluidsSlide23

Disinfectants should be used when cleaning equipment & facilities

Disinfectants – material that kills disease causing organismsHousingShould be clean & free of cold draftsGood air circulation to help lower tem & reduce humidity

Avoid dry & dusty conditionsProper Maintenance of facilities

Healthy Environments for AnimalsSlide24

Handling ManurePiles of manure are often sources of poor health

Manure attracts flies which may lead to diseaseExcessive manure can lead to poor air qualityMay reduce rates of gainMay lead to feet & leg problems in feedlots

Feedlots – areas in which large numbers of animals are grown for foodHealthy Environments for AnimalsSlide25

Controlling Pests

Control of pests & parasitesRegular use of disinfectants to control parasites such as lice and flies prevents disease.Prevention is preferable to controlling outbreaksControl of birds & wild animals

Many birds carry parasites on their bodies and in their droppingsHealthy Environments for AnimalsSlide26

Wild animals and pets may also cause serious health problems when allowed to roam freely around farm animals.

Bites from the animals may cause infectionPets around farm animals may cause the animals to be nervous and may affect how they grow and produce.

Healthy Environments for AnimalsSlide27

IsolationKeeping new animals apart is good prevention

Recommended to keep new animals isolated for a minimum of 30 days for observationMay want to isolate animals returning to farmAnimals with contagious diseases should not be in contact with healthy animals.

It is difficult to treat unhealthy animals in large groupsHealthy animals tend to pick on unhealthy ones

Healthy Environments for AnimalsSlide28

It is important to rotate pastures in which animals roam

Many diseases of animals are harbored in the soil and are killed only by not being able to come into contact with host animals for extended time periodsHost Animal – animal in or on which diseases or parasites can live.Moving animals to different pastures on a regular basis allows for the breakdown of animal waste and for pasture regrowth.

Healthy Environments for AnimalsSlide29

2 Major categories of disease.

Contagious – those that can be passed on to other animals.Non-Contagious- disease cannot be spread to other animalsAnimals with contagious disease must be isolated as soon as the disease is identified.

Diseases Slide30

Humans must be careful in handling infected animals because some diseases can be transmitted to humans

Humans handling animals should become familiar with the proper techniques, vaccinations, and precautions to avoid disease and parasitic infection


Causes of Diseases

Contagious diseases are caused mostly by bacteria & viruses.Can be spread by direct contact, shared housing , or contaminated feed or waterCan be spread by birds, rodents, or insectsNon-contagious may be caused by nutrient deficiencies or nutrient excess

Poisonous plants & animals, injection of foreign material, and open wounds may cause disease.


SymptomsPoor growth reduced production

Reduced feed intake rough, dry hair coatDischarge from nose or eyesCoughing or gasping trembling or shiveringUnusual discharges open sores or wournds

Unusual swelling, lumps, and knotsAbortionPeculiar gait or other odd movementsSome diseases have little or no external symptoms that occur.


Two types of parasites

Internal – inside the animalExternal – living on the outside of the animalTypes of Internal Parasites

Roundworms – slender worms that are tapered on both endsFlukes – very small, flat wormsProtozoa – microscopic one celled organisms




Most internal parasites spend some of their life-cycle outside the host animal

During this period the parasite may most easily be spread.Contact with discharges from infected animals, contaminated feed, water, housing, or secondary hosts may cause the spread of internal parasitesSecondary Host – a plant or animal that carries a disease or parasite during part of the life cycle of that disease or parasite

May be spread by insects – mosquitoes and flies


External Parasites – include flies, ticks, mites, & fleas


Symptoms of parasitic infectionPoor growth diarrhea or bloody feces

Weight loss worms in fecesConstant coughing and gaggingAnemia swelling under neckLowered production & reproductionPoor stamina loss of hair and mange

Mange – presence of crusty skin condition caused by mitesVisibility of parasite itself


Procedures for preventing and treating

Administering drugsDippingRestraining animalsFeed additivesVaccination- injection of an agent into an animal to prevent disease

Preventing & Treating Animal Health ProblemsSlide41

Factors to be considered before administering drugs.

Determine the amount to be administeredType of drug to usePurpose of the drugSite of administration of the drugType of animal to be treated

Preventing & Treating Animal Health ProblemsSlide42

Most information can be found on the drug container.

Must follow the manufacturer’s recommendations closelyIt is important to consider the amount of time the drug will remain in the body.Important in determining how long milk or meat will be contaminatedMust be determined how long to wait before treated animals or product can be slaughtered or sold.

Preventing & Treating Animal Health ProblemsSlide43

Forms that drugs may come inPills

Force pill as far down the side of the mouth as possible using hand or balling gun.Balling Gun – a device used to place a pill in the animals throat

Preventing & Treating Animal Health ProblemsSlide44

Forms that drugs may come inPowders

Normally mixed in feed or waterMay need to withhold feed or water before administering drugDipping – a process for treating animals, mostly cattle & sheep, for external parasites

Involves a vat with medicated water and forcing the animals to walk or swim through it.May be used with dogs for ticks and fleasPopular when large numbers of animals must be completely covered with medication

Preventing & Treating Animal Health ProblemsSlide45

Taking Temperatures

Usually taken in the rectumAnimal thermometers are normally longer & heavierShould have string attachedCoat the thermometer with sterile jelly.

Determine Pulse and Respiration RatesPulse rate taken by holding ear to animals chest and listening to heartbeatRespiration rate taken by watching rib cage move

Preventing & Treating Animal Health ProblemsSlide46

Restraining AnimalsHead gates Nose leads

Squeeze Chutes Casting harnesHalters SnaresTwitches

VaccinationPrevention of disease is nearly always less expensive than treating animals once they have diseaseVaccination is the injection of an agent into an animal to prevent disease.The agent causes the animal’s body to become immune to the diseaseImmune – means not affected by something

Preventing & Treating Animal Health ProblemsSlide47

Feed AdditivesUsed primarily to control the incidence of low level infections in growing animals.

Materials are primarily antibiotics that help increase feed efficiency and rate of gain as well as control disease.Follow all administration recommendations

Preventing & Treating Animal Health ProblemsSlide48

PasteNormally used for treating horses for worms

Placed on the back of the tongue.Impossible to treat for worms using other methods.

Preventing & Treating Animal Health ProblemsSlide49


Drugs administered orally or placed directly in the animals stomach by drenching.Drenching – administering large amounts of liquid to an animalCare must be taken not to get the drug into the animals lung’s

Injection of drugsInjection – the process of administering drugs by needle and syringe.

Preventing & Treating Animal Health ProblemsSlide50

Methods of Injection

Intravenous – in a veinIntramuscular – in a muscleSubcutaneous – under the skin

Intradermal – between the layers of skinIntraruminal – in the rumenIntraperitoneal – in the abdominal cavity

One determining factor as to where injections are made is how fast the drug needs to work

A drug injected into the blood is available faster than one injected under the skin.

It may be desirable for drugs to be released slowly over a long period of time. Ex. Growth hormone

Preventing & Treating Animal Health ProblemsSlide51

Procedure for giving injection

Restrain the animalSelect the location for injection – check instructionsFill syringe, making sure that all air is removedDisinfect the area to be injectedClip hair if

intradermallyInsert needle in desired area without the syringe attachedAttach syringe to needle and inject liquidInfusionInfusion – the process of treating udder problems through the teat canal

A sterile


(blunt needle) is inserted into the opening of the teat and the drug is forced in

Preventing & Treating Animal Health ProblemsSlide52

How are animals identified?

It is important to be able to tell animals apart, especially in large enterprises.

By not identifying an animal, the owner will not know what animal to watch, treat, breed, and so on. This could be detrimental to the operation. There are different methods of identification used for various types of animals.

It is important to use the appropriate methods for each particular species.Slide53

Why is ID important?

Important management tool

Performance measurements

Identify treated animals

Track ownership and movement

Track disease outbreaks in food animal industry

Ensure consumer confidence

Able to document safety of food productsSlide54

How are animals identified?

A. Cattle can be branded to establish ownership.

Branding is the burning or freezing of a mark onto an animal to determine ownership or pedigree. Some owners brand the horns of their animals. There are four methods used:1. Hot iron branding

2. Freeze branding

3. Branding fluids

4. Laser brandingSlide55

Identification Methods

Ear notching

Used commonly in swine


How are animals identified?

B. Plastic or metal ear tags are also used to identify animals.

Plastic ear tags are popular, because they are inexpensive, can be installed anytime, and are numbered. Plastic tags are easier to read than metal tags. They are also brightly colored, have large numbers, and are easily read from a distance.Slide57

How are animals identified?

C. Marking the skin with ink on needle points is called

tattooing. This is a permanent marking but can be hard to read. Tattooing is commonly used with swine and cattle, rabbits and other small animals.



are permanent notches cut into ears of animals.

This method can be done with a knife or ear notching tool.

Pigs and sheep are commonly ear marked.Slide58

How are animals identified?

E. Neck chains are sometimes used, but these chains and tags can get lost.

The animal, on rare occasions, could also hang itself.F. Another way to identify cattle is to have them swallow a transmitter that stays in their stomach. The transmitter gives off a signal to identify the animal when activated by a receiving unit. This method is costly, but the transmitters can be retrieved and reused after slaughter.Slide59

Other Methods of ID

Nose PrintingDNALeg Bands

Electronic DevicesSlide60


What are good health management practices?What records should be kept to encourage good animal health

with dairy animals?Simple maintenance can help to promote animal health.How are animals identified?