SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) First infectious disease outbreak in the 21st century SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) – originally an animal virus Coronaviruses are common throughout the world and can infect both animals and humans – affect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of mammals (including humans) and birds Usually causes a high percentage of common colds (in human adults), pneumonia, bronchitis, etc. Symptoms: very similar to influenza-like symptoms: fever, headache, diarrhoea, shivering, etc.
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Neglected and emerging infectious diseases (SARS)
Presentation on theme: "Neglected and emerging infectious diseases (SARS)"— Presentation transcript:
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)
of the SARS outbreak:
November 2002: animal to human transmission in Guangdong Province, China12 February: WHO reported 305 cases and 5 fatalities19 February: WHO reported a case of H5N1 of a nine-year old boy in Hong Kong (had travelled to Fujian Province in January (mother and sister ) confusion about the virusmid-Feruary: Dr Liu Jianlun, professor of nephrology at Zhongshan University (Guangzhou) travels to HK stays at the Metropole Hotel, 9th floor, room 911 dies one day later in a hospital in HK he had infected at least 16 other guests at the 9th floor (citizens from the US, Singapore, Canada) start of a global epidemic
travels to Hanoi – admitted
hospital – infecting hospital staffMarch: WHO receives reports of atypical respiratory disease from multiple countries and places (Vietnam, Singapore, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, the Philippines)15 March: WHO is notified of the case of a Singoporean national with symptoms of atypical pneumonia travelling from New York to Singapore via Frankfurt (arriving in Frankfurt, he is immediately isolated together with his family)15 March: WHO issues an emergency travel advisory (providing information on symptoms at airports)15 March: WHO names the disease Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (confirming the emergence of a new virus)
globalisation of disease: SARS, p. 80What is going on here?
tries to coordinate the international
to the virus outbreak through its Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN). - collecting information - providing and sharing information - tracing transmission patterns (Guangdong Province, Metropole Hotel HK, etc.) - creating an epidemiological profile GUANGDONG PROVINCE
government fails to
/ denies WHO health workers access27 March: WHO issues recommendation to prevent travel-related spread (HK, Singapore, Vietnam and Canada)1 April: WHO reports 1804 cases with 62 deaths in 15 countries30 April: 5663 cases, 372 deaths, 26 countries29 May: 8295 cases, 750 deaths, 28 countriesJune: epidemic finally slows down with no new cases reported WHO publicly criticises the Chinese government in May Chinese government starts to cooperate WHO`s global efforts to contain epidemic at major hot spots (GOARN)
actually happen during the SARS outbreak? /How did a global epidemic reconfigure and reshape geopolitics in Asia?Describe and explain the behaviour of the Chinese government during the SARS outbreak! What does China‘s behaviour mean for traditional notions such as sovereignty, territory and nationalism in IR?
tropical disease (NTDs): - diseases that occur within the tropical belt and include Chagas disease, malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis and others. - diseases that affect a significant proportion of people in the global south with a clear economic burden on the countryExamples: Chagas disease: 6 million to 7 million people worldwide affected (mostly in Latin America)Leishmaniasis: annually between 700.000 and 1 million new cases (among them 20.000 to 30.000 new deaths) over 1 billion people at risk / living in endemic areasDengue fever: estimated 390 million Dengue infections every year / 40% of the global population is at riskMalaria: (in 2016 alone) 216 million cases worldwide / 445.000 deaths / African region
to 90% of all Malaria
of profitable market and efficient market
mechanismsTrouiller et al, Drugs for neglected diseases, p. 90.1975 – 2014: only 21 out of 1,556 drugs (1.3%) were developed to address NTDs, even though NTDs account for 11.4% of the global disease burden.Between 1975 and 1997: less than 1% of the 1,223 new medicines launched were destined for tropical diseases.
to drug development
cost of Research & Development (R&D) - regulatory barriers - protection of intellectual property (WTO, TRIPS, Free Trade Agreements)Strategies to overcome these barriers - technology transfer and capacity building - improve legal and regulatory framework - finance drug development and ensure access The landscape has profoundly changed since the beginning of this century!
1) Analyse the
of the following new mechanisms created to tackle the challenge of neglected diseases in global health governance:TB Alliance (www.tballiance.org) DNDi (Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (www.dndi.org) Medicines for Malaria Venture (www.mmv.org) Chagas Clinical Research Platform (www.dndi.org/strengthening-capacity/chagas-platform/)Leishmaniasis East Africa Platform (www.dndi.org/strengthening-capacity/leap-platform/) 2) Describe the principal (founding) members, the decision-making logic, the key objectives and the fundamental strategies to find solutions to the problem of neglected diseases!3) What do these new mechanisms tell us about how global health governance has changed the traditional notions of IR?
Neglected and emerging infectious diseases (SARS) - Description
SARS Severe Acute Respiratory SyndromebrFirst infectious disease outbreak in the 21st centurybrSARScoronavirus SARSCoV originally an animal virusbrCoronaviruses are common throughout the world and can infect both animals and humans affect the upper respiratory and gastrointestina ID: 776708 Download Presentation
Important Terms. Emerging . infectious disease- . An infectious disease that has newly appeared in a population or that has been known for some time but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range.
This reflects the combined impacts of rapid demographic environmental social technological and other changes in our ways ofliving Climate change will also affect infectious disease occurrence CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN HEALTH RISK AND RESPONSES 16 Hu
Medical Officer. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rabies in Captive Deer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. National Center for Emerging and . Zoonotic. Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases .
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Next Generation Science/Common Core Standards Addressed!. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.2 Determine . the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.
cdcgoveid Vol 13 No 1 January 2007 1 human remains do not pose a risk for outbreaks Dead bodies only pose health risks in a few situations that re quire speci c precautions such as deaths from cholera or hemorrhagic fevers Rec
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Infection: Results when a pathogen invades and begins growing within the host. Disease: Results only if and when normal tissue function is impaired. The body has defense mechanisms to prevent infection (i.e. burns, skin lesions).