NSSI and PERFECTIONISM

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NSSI and PERFECTIONISM




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Slide1

NSSI and PERFECTIONISM

Madeleine BrocklesbySupervised by Associate Professor Marc WilsonYouth Wellbeing StudyVictoria University of Wellington

Slide2

NON-SUICIDAL SELF INJURY

“Non-suicidal

self-injury

is

the intentional

destruction

of body tissue without suicidal intent and for purposes not socially

sanctioned”

(p. 1045,

Klonsky

&

Muehlenkamp

, 2007)

International review found that on average 18% of adolescents reported having engaged in NSSI

(

Muehlenkamp

,

Claes

,

Havertape

&

Plener

, 2012)

49% of Wellington adolescents reported having engaged in NSSI

(

Garisch

, 2010)

Slide3

PERFECTIONISM

“the setting of excessively high standards of performance”(p. 450, Frost, Marten, Lahart & Rosenblate, 1990)Underlying cognitive vulnerability OR a personal strength

Slide4

FROST’S MULTIDIMENSIONAL PERFECTIONISM SCALE (FMPS)

Perfectionism

Concerns over mistakes

Negative perfectionism

Doubts about actions

Parental criticism

Parental expectations

Personal standards

Organisation

Positive perfectionism

(Frost et al., 1993)

(Frost et al., 1990)

Slide5

PREVIOUS RESEARCH

Negative perfectionism

Negative affect

Depression

Eating disorders

Anxiety disorders

Shame and guilt

SELF-INJURY

Positive perfectionism

Positive affect

Achievement motivation

Self esteem

However….some differences across sex have been found

(Antony et al., 1998;

Bulina

, 2014; Dickie, Wilson, McDowall, &

Surgenor

, 2012; Frost et al., 1990; Hoff &

Muehlenkamp

, 2009;

Klibert

,

Langhinrichsen-Rohling

, & Saito, 2005;

Stoeber

, Schneider, Hussain, & Matthews, 2014)

Slide6

PERFECTIONISM AND NSSI

Hoff and Muehlenkamp

(2009) found university students engaging in NSSI scored higher on ‘Concern over Mistakes’ and ‘Parental Criticism’, and lower on ‘Organisation’ subscales of the FMPS

O’Connor, Rasmussen and Hawton (2010) illustrated that

for

adolescents experiencing

only low levels of life stress, an increase in

negative

perfectionism significantly increased the probability of engaging in

deliberate

self-harm.

Slide7

THE YOUTH WELLBEING STUDY

Aim: to clarify the relationship between NSSI and negative and positive components of perfectionism in adolescents

15 secondary schools

>900

students

13-15 years old

58.8% male; 41.2% female

Deliberate Self Harm Inventory

– 14 specific NSSI behaviours (DSHI

;

Gratz

, 2001)

Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism

Scale

– 35 items (FMPS

; Frost et al., 1990)

Slide8

HYPOTHESES

A

factor analysis will produce two distinct sub-factors of perfectionism; positive perfectionism and negative perfectionism

Adolescents reporting

high

negative perfectionism will report

more NSSI, whereas individuals high

o

n positive perfectionism will report less NSSI

Sex differences may be found in this relationship

Slide9

FINDINGS

Uncertainty of the applicability of Frost’s six factors in the current sampleTwo factor, positive/negative structure supportedConsistent with other studies using the FMPS in adolescent samples(e.g. Cox, Enns, & Clara, 2002; Hawton, Saunders, & O’Connor, 2012; Khawaja & Armstrong, 2005; Thorpe & Nettelbeck, 2014)

HYPOTHESIS

ONE:

2 factors within perfectionism

Slide10

SOME GENERAL FINDINGS

Perfectionism

Positive

perfectionism was higher than negative perfectionism in both males and females

Females scored higher than males on both negative and positive perfectionism

NSSI

21.1% of the sample had engaged in NSSI, 9.9% had thought about (but not done) it

Females (29%) engaged in significantly more NSSI than males (

9

%)

Slide11

FINDINGS

Negative perfectionism was positively related to NSSI (r = .31, p<.001)There was a weak negative relationship between positive perfectionism and NSSI (r = -.13, p<.001)

HYPOTHESIS TWO:

negative perfectionism = risk of NSSI positive perfectionism = risk of NSSI

Slide12

FemalesPositive perfectionism and NSSI (r = -.18, p<.001)Negative perfectionism and NSSI (r = .34, p<.001)Males Positive perfectionism and NSSI (r = -.14, p<.01)Negative perfectionism and NSSI (r = .11, p=.04)

FINDINGS

HYPOTHESIS THREE: Sex differences may be found in the relationship between NSSI and perfectionism

Slide13

FINDINGS

Sex moderated the relationship between negative perfectionism and NSSI

Slide14

IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCHERS, CLINICIANS, PARENTS AND SCHOOL STAFF

Research should continue to differentiate between positive and negative perfectionism rather than use an overall perfectionism score

Awareness that

n

egative perfectionism could significantly contribute to a female adolescents risk of engaging in NSSI

Parents and teachers can limit the development of negatively perfectionistic beliefs in adolescents

by attending to how they frame their expectations

(

Damian,

Stoeber

,

Negru

,

Bǎban

, &

Băban

, 2013)

Interventions for NSSI should consider perfectionistic beliefs

Slide15

FUTURE RESEARCH

Investigate whether alternative factor structures of the FMPS provide a better fit for our adolescent sample

Examine whether there are functions of NSSI that are especially relevant for individuals high on perfectionism

e.g. self-punishment, gain a sense of control, reduce the expectations of others

Slide16

Thank you!

Slide17

REFERENCES

Antony, M. M., Purdon, C. L.,

Huta

, V., Richard, P. S.,

Swinson

, R. P., & Richard, P. S. (1998). Dimensions of perfectionism across the anxiety disorders.

Behaviour Research and Therapy

,

36

(12), 1143–1154. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00083-7

Bulina

, R. (2014). Relations Between Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism, Self-Efficacy, and Subjective Well-Being,

4

(10), 835–842.

Cox, B. J.,

Enns

, M. W., & Clara, I. P. (2002). The multidimensional structure of perfectionism in clinically distressed and college student samples.

Psychological Assessment

,

14

(3), 365–373. http://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.14.3.365

Damian, L. E.,

Stoeber

, J.,

Negru

, O.,

Bǎban

, A., &

Băban

, A. (2013). On the development of perfectionism in adolescence: Perceived parental expectations predict longitudinal increases in socially prescribed perfectionism.

Personality and Individual Differences

,

55

(6), 688–693. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.05.021

Dickie, L., Wilson, M., McDowall, J., &

Surgenor

, L. J. (2012). What Components of Perfectionism Predict Drive for Thinness?

Eating Disorders

,

20

(March 2014), 232–247. http://doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2012.668484

Frost, R. O.,

Heimberg

, R. G., Holt, C. S.,

Mattia

, J. I., &

Neubauer

, A. L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfectionism.

Personality and Individual Differences

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Frost, R. O., Marten, P.,

Lahart

, C., &

Rosenblate

, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism.

Cognitive Therapy and Research

,

14

(5), 449–468. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF01172967

Garisch

, J. A. (2010). Youth deliberate self-harm : Interpersonal and intrapersonal vulnerability factors , and constructions and attitudes within the social environment ., 1–319.

Gratz

, K. L. (2001). Measurement of deliberate self-harm: Preliminary data on the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory.

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, K., Saunders, K. E. a, & O’Connor, R. C. (2012). Self-harm and suicide in adolescents.

The Lancet

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Hoff, E. R., &

Muehlenkamp

, J. J. (2009).

Nonsuicidal

self-injury in college students: the role of perfectionism and rumination.

Suicide & Life-Threatening

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,

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Khawaja, N. G., & Armstrong, K. A. (2005). Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: Developing shorter versions using an Australian sample.

Australian Journal of Psychology

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, J. J.,

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, J., & Saito, M. (2005). Adaptive and maladaptive aspects of self-oriented versus socially prescribed perfectionism.

Journal of College Student Development

,

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(2), 141–156. http://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2005.0017

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, E. D., &

Muehlenkamp

, J. J. (2007). Self‐injury: A research review for the practitioner.

Journal of Clinical Psychology

,

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, J. J.,

Claes

, L.,

Havertape

, L., &

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, P. L. (2012). International prevalence of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm.

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Hawton

, K. (2010). Predicting depression, anxiety and self-harm in adolescents: The role of perfectionism and acute life stress.

Behaviour Research and Therapy

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Stoeber

, J., Schneider, N., Hussain, R., & Matthews, K. (2014). Perfectionism and Negative Affect After Repeated Failure.

Journal of Individual Differences

,

35

(2), 87–94. http://doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000130

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Nettelbeck

, T. (2014). Testing if Healthy Perfectionism Enhances Academic Achievement in Australian Secondary School Students.

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