Presentations text content in NSSI and PERFECTIONISM
NSSI and PERFECTIONISM
Madeleine BrocklesbySupervised by Associate Professor Marc WilsonYouth Wellbeing StudyVictoria University of WellingtonSlide2
NON-SUICIDAL SELF INJURY
of body tissue without suicidal intent and for purposes not socially
International review found that on average 18% of adolescents reported having engaged in NSSI
49% of Wellington adolescents reported having engaged in NSSI
“the setting of excessively high standards of performance”(p. 450, Frost, Marten, Lahart & Rosenblate, 1990)Underlying cognitive vulnerability OR a personal strengthSlide4
FROST’S MULTIDIMENSIONAL PERFECTIONISM SCALE (FMPS)
Concerns over mistakes
Doubts about actions
(Frost et al., 1993)
(Frost et al., 1990)Slide5
Shame and guilt
However….some differences across sex have been found
(Antony et al., 1998;
, 2014; Dickie, Wilson, McDowall, &
, 2012; Frost et al., 1990; Hoff &
, & Saito, 2005;
, Schneider, Hussain, & Matthews, 2014)Slide6
PERFECTIONISM AND NSSI
Hoff and Muehlenkamp
(2009) found university students engaging in NSSI scored higher on ‘Concern over Mistakes’ and ‘Parental Criticism’, and lower on ‘Organisation’ subscales of the FMPS
O’Connor, Rasmussen and Hawton (2010) illustrated that
only low levels of life stress, an increase in
perfectionism significantly increased the probability of engaging in
THE YOUTH WELLBEING STUDY
Aim: to clarify the relationship between NSSI and negative and positive components of perfectionism in adolescents
15 secondary schools
13-15 years old
58.8% male; 41.2% female
Deliberate Self Harm Inventory
– 14 specific NSSI behaviours (DSHI
Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism
– 35 items (FMPS
; Frost et al., 1990)Slide8
factor analysis will produce two distinct sub-factors of perfectionism; positive perfectionism and negative perfectionism
negative perfectionism will report
more NSSI, whereas individuals high
n positive perfectionism will report less NSSI
Sex differences may be found in this relationshipSlide9
Uncertainty of the applicability of Frost’s six factors in the current sampleTwo factor, positive/negative structure supportedConsistent with other studies using the FMPS in adolescent samples(e.g. Cox, Enns, & Clara, 2002; Hawton, Saunders, & O’Connor, 2012; Khawaja & Armstrong, 2005; Thorpe & Nettelbeck, 2014)
2 factors within perfectionismSlide10
SOME GENERAL FINDINGS
perfectionism was higher than negative perfectionism in both males and females
Females scored higher than males on both negative and positive perfectionism
21.1% of the sample had engaged in NSSI, 9.9% had thought about (but not done) it
Females (29%) engaged in significantly more NSSI than males (
Negative perfectionism was positively related to NSSI (r = .31, p<.001)There was a weak negative relationship between positive perfectionism and NSSI (r = -.13, p<.001)
negative perfectionism = risk of NSSI positive perfectionism = risk of NSSISlide12
FemalesPositive perfectionism and NSSI (r = -.18, p<.001)Negative perfectionism and NSSI (r = .34, p<.001)Males Positive perfectionism and NSSI (r = -.14, p<.01)Negative perfectionism and NSSI (r = .11, p=.04)
HYPOTHESIS THREE: Sex differences may be found in the relationship between NSSI and perfectionismSlide13
Sex moderated the relationship between negative perfectionism and NSSISlide14
IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCHERS, CLINICIANS, PARENTS AND SCHOOL STAFF
Research should continue to differentiate between positive and negative perfectionism rather than use an overall perfectionism score
egative perfectionism could significantly contribute to a female adolescents risk of engaging in NSSI
Parents and teachers can limit the development of negatively perfectionistic beliefs in adolescents
by attending to how they frame their expectations
Interventions for NSSI should consider perfectionistic beliefsSlide15
Investigate whether alternative factor structures of the FMPS provide a better fit for our adolescent sample
Examine whether there are functions of NSSI that are especially relevant for individuals high on perfectionism
e.g. self-punishment, gain a sense of control, reduce the expectations of othersSlide16
Antony, M. M., Purdon, C. L.,
, V., Richard, P. S.,
, R. P., & Richard, P. S. (1998). Dimensions of perfectionism across the anxiety disorders.
Behaviour Research and Therapy
(12), 1143–1154. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00083-7
, R. (2014). Relations Between Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism, Self-Efficacy, and Subjective Well-Being,
Cox, B. J.,
, M. W., & Clara, I. P. (2002). The multidimensional structure of perfectionism in clinically distressed and college student samples.
(3), 365–373. http://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35184.108.40.2065
Damian, L. E.,
, A., &
, A. (2013). On the development of perfectionism in adolescence: Perceived parental expectations predict longitudinal increases in socially prescribed perfectionism.
Personality and Individual Differences
(6), 688–693. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.05.021
Dickie, L., Wilson, M., McDowall, J., &
, L. J. (2012). What Components of Perfectionism Predict Drive for Thinness?
(March 2014), 232–247. http://doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2012.668484
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, R. G., Holt, C. S.,
, J. I., &
, A. L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfectionism.
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, C., &
, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism.
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(5), 449–468. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF01172967
, J. A. (2010). Youth deliberate self-harm : Interpersonal and intrapersonal vulnerability factors , and constructions and attitudes within the social environment ., 1–319.
, K. L. (2001). Measurement of deliberate self-harm: Preliminary data on the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory.
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(4), 253–263. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012779403943
, K., Saunders, K. E. a, & O’Connor, R. C. (2012). Self-harm and suicide in adolescents.
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, J. J. (2009).
self-injury in college students: the role of perfectionism and rumination.
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, J. J.,
, J., & Saito, M. (2005). Adaptive and maladaptive aspects of self-oriented versus socially prescribed perfectionism.
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, J. J.,
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, K. (2010). Predicting depression, anxiety and self-harm in adolescents: The role of perfectionism and acute life stress.
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, J., Schneider, N., Hussain, R., & Matthews, K. (2014). Perfectionism and Negative Affect After Repeated Failure.
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Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology
(2), p1. http://doi.org/10.5539/jedp.v4n2p1Slide18Slide19Slide20Slide21Slide22Slide23Slide24Slide25Slide26