Youth Wellbeing Study – Update

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Youth Wellbeing Study – Update




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Presentations text content in Youth Wellbeing Study – Update

Slide1

Youth Wellbeing Study – Update

Marc Wilson, Jessica Garisch, Robyn Langlands, Angelique O’Connell, Lynne Russell, Emma-Jayne

Brown,

Tahlia

Kingi

,

Kealagh

Robinson, and

Maddie

Judge

Wellington, May

2014

Slide2

Youth Wellbeing Study

Longitudinal survey with secondary school students.Non-Suicidal Self-injuryPrimarily investigatingRisk and protective factors for the development of non-suicidal self-injuryBarriers to help-seeking

Slide3

Trajectory of NSSI among young New Zealanders

We have data spanning age-groups

13 – 15 years

olds

...and you’ve heard us talk about before:

16 – 19 year olds

University students (M=19

yo

)

Slide4

Prevalence

YWS Wave 1 results

N=1027 (991 responded to questions on NSSI)

213 (21%) engaged in NSSI at least once

81.6% had engaged in NSSI in the past year

Senior secondary school students

N=1162

48.7% had engaged in NSSI at least once

53.6% had engaged in NSSI in past year

46.4% over a year ago

University students

N= 593

43.7% had engaged in NSSI at least once

Slide5

Participants indicated how they felt at the start, and again at the end, of the survey.

If anything, participants report feeling on average happier at the end.

Slide6

YWS wave 1: Further information on prevalence...

Type of NSSI

Never

thought about

Thought about, never

done

Have done once

Have done a few times

Have done many times

Cut

80.2

6.0

3.8

6.2

3.8

Scratched

87.5

2.7

3.8

4.0

1.9

Carved

89.2

2.3

3.7

3.0

1.7

Punched/ banged

90.3

2.5

3.7

2.7

0.7

Stuck

sharp objects

91.1

2.1

3.4

2.4

0.9

Prevent healing

91.8

1.5

3.3

1.9

1.4

Bitten self

93.8

2.4

2.4

1.0

0.4

Burn

94.3

2.7

1.5

1.0

0.5

Rubbed

glass

96.0

1.4

1.5

0.8

0.3

Broken bones

97.1

1.6

0.7

0.4

0.2

Rubbed sandpaper

97.7

1.1

0.8

0.3

0.1

Dripped

acid

99.2

0.3

0.2

0.0

0.0

Used bleach/ cleaning agent

99.2

0.7

0.1

0.0

0.0

Slide7

Prevalence of Types of NSSI

YWS Wave 1 sample

Cutting most common

Severe scratching, carving the skin, punching or banging

Senior Secondary School students

Sticking sharp objects into the skin, carved, scratch most common

Cutting

Other types assessed (e.g. using acid, sandpaper, etc.) much less frequently reported.

Types of NSSI generally cluster into 2 factors: ‘common’ + ‘uncommon’

Slide8

Engagement in multiple types of NSSI

University student data suggests that the majority of young people engage in 1 – 3 types of NSSI...

Slide9

Engagement in multiple types of NSSI

YWS Wave 1

Of the 213 who reported NSSI

25.6% reported 1 form

17.4% reported 2 forms

15.5% reported 3 forms

37.1% reported > 3 forms

Slide10

Self-reported Function of NSSI

Slide11

YWS Wave 1: Four Clusters(Functions assessed using FASM (Klonsky & Olino, 2008)

Interpersonal:

Other-focused

Interpersonal: self-focused

Intrapersonal: Disconnection

Intrapersonal: Affect & Punish

Slide12

Functions & Psycho-social functioning

Generally, intrapersonal functions (both disconnection and affect regulation/self-punishment) most strongly associated with indicators of poor functioning...

Slide13

Anxiety

Level of Function endorsement

Depression

Level of Function endorsement

Slide14

Attachment to Parents

Level of Function endorsement

Attachment to Peers

Level of Function endorsement

Slide15

Emotion Regulation

Level of Function endorsement

Resilience

Level of Function endorsement

Slide16

Suicidal Ideation

Level of Function endorsement

Self-Esteem

Level of Function endorsement

Slide17

YWS: Participant Clusters by Function

Cluster 1: Affect regulation & self-punishment (n=75)Cluster 2: Low on all (n=81)Cluster 3: Highest on intrapersonal (n=13)Cluster 4: High on all, highest on both interpersonal (n=22)

C1

C4

C2

C3

Slide18

YWS: Clusters + Psycho-social functioning

Four clusters differed significantly on:

Suicidality

(notably C1 and C3)

Self-esteem

Resilience

Depression

Anxiety

Emotion regulation

Attachment to parents (but not peers...)

NSSI behaviour

Cluster 2 (low on all) generally the best

Slide19

The NUMBER of types of self-injury engaged in is strongly predictive of suicidal ideation:

For each additional form, SBQ scores increase:

1 form

SBQ = 3.5ish

2 forms

 SBQ = 5ish

3 forms  SBQ = 7ish

7 is the recommended

cutoff

for concern…

Slide20

YWS: Participant Clusters by NSSI forms

C1

C4

C2

C3

Slide21

YWS: Participant Clusters by NSSI forms

C1 – 2

nd most likely to cut, 3rd most likely for most forms

C4 – most likely to self-bite, 2nd most likely for most.Most likely to have thought about ‘atypical’ self-injury like bone breaking, using glass, bleach, etc

C2

C3 – Most likely to cut, carve, insert

Slide22

Implications for practice

Results congruent with the idea that NSSI begins in early adolescents, and continues into early adulthood for some individuals

Forms of NSSI: multiple behaviours need to be queried.

Functions

Heterogeneity

Affect regulation most prevalent

Slide23

Implications for practice continued...

Functions can point to skills required...

Affect regulation

Distress tolerance skills

Labelling and communicating emotions

Understanding beliefs regarding experiencing (and showing) emotion

Slide24

Acknowledgements

Participating

schools, counsellors

+ students

HRC

Thanks for listening

Any questions? Comments?


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