INSTITUTE OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY. TOPIC : CARBONATED BEVERAGES . SUBMITTED TO :. MR.MANOJ KUMAR. :. SUBMITTED BY : . KRITIKA JHARKHARIA. MSc. 3. rd. SEMESTER. CARBONATED BEVERAGES. Carbonated drinks are beverages that contain dissolved carbon dioxide. The dissolution of CO. ID: 659067
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SUBJECT : BEVERAGE TECHNOLOGY
INSTITUTE OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY
TOPIC : CARBONATED BEVERAGES
SUBMITTED TO :
SUBMITTED BY :
Carbonated drinks are beverages that contain dissolved carbon dioxide. The dissolution of CO
2 in a liquid, gives rise to fizz or effervescence. The process usually involves carbon dioxide under high pressure. When the pressure is removed, the carbon dioxide is released from the solution as small bubbles, which causes the solution to become effervescent, or fizzy. A common example is the dissolving of carbon dioxide in water, resulting in carbonated water. Carbon dioxide is only weakly soluble in water, therefore it separates into a gas when the pressure is released.Slide3
Carbonated beverages are prepared by mixing flavored syrup with carbonated water, both chilled. Carbonation levels range up to 5 volumes of CO
2 per liquid volume. Ginger ale, colas, and related drinks are carbonated with 3.5 volumes. Other drinks, often fruity ones, are carbonated lessSlide4
FLOW DIAGRAM OF CARBONATED BEVERAGE
CHILLING AND CARBONATING
INGREDIENTS OF CARBONATED DRINKS
Water is the major ingredient of carbonated beverages comprising about 90% of the total. The quality of water used in manufacture has the direct implications for the quality of the end product and the pretreatment is invariably required. The nature of pretreatment varies according to the source of water and its chemical composition. Removal of microscopic and colloidal particles by coagulation and filtration, softening and ph adjustment may all, however be necessary where water supplies are of poor quality
Disinfection is required even where municipal water supplies are used to remove bacteria which have entered the system during distribution and storageSlide7
Chlorination remains the preferred method and , in addition to the destruction of vegetative microorganisms ,is technologically advantageous in removing oxidizable materials, such as dissolved organic matter and soluble iron compounds ,and in aiding coagulation processes .chemical aspects of the treatment require super chlorination with doses above 2mg/l.
Deareation of water is required to facilitate subsequent carbonation and filling operations and to improve the perceived quality of the dispensed drink. At low levels of the air the partial pressure to be overcome to dissolve co2 is less and the forming problems due to the gas coming out of the solution is minimized.
High level of air also lead to excessively rapid release of co2 on pouring, resulting in a ‘flat’ and insipid drink ,and more rapid detoriation during storage .The extent of deareation is usually assessed by determining the dissolved oxygen levels, current practice requiring dissolved oxygen to be reduced from 8-9 to 1mg/l or lessSlide9Slide10
Once a suitable formulation has been developed preparation of a syrup is a relatively simple procedure involving, mixing of the ingredients, measured either manually or automatically, in stainless steel tanks fitted with top –driven agitators. The process must be protected against microbial invasion and is usually carried out in a clean room , ideally equipped with air filtration equipment and maintained at a slight positive air pressure .It is now a usual practice to heat treat the sugar syrup using a plate heat exchanger.
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER TO HEAT SUGAR SYRUPSlide11
❷A ) FLAVOURING
The flavoring component of the sugar syrup is obviously the major influence on the flavor of the final product, although the actual concentration may only be o.o15%.
COLA ROOT EXTRACT
The nature of flavoring obviously varies, according to the nature of the product . Fruit is most commonly used, with the exception of the colas ,which is flavored by extract of cola root together with as much as 10% caffeine and a mixture of essence . Fruit flavor may be added as juice , as a comminute or as an essence.Slide12
Natural citrus essences are composed largely of essential oils from the peel of the fruit. Hydrocarbons, mostly limonene, constitute more than 90% of the oil, but contribute little, or nothing to the flavor, acting primarily as the carrier. Water-soluble flavorings may be prepared by ‘washing’, in which the oil is extracted in dilute alcohol solutions and separated from the hydrocarbon fraction ,or by simple distillation .Distillation permits concentration by up to five-fold, characteristic flavor being retained by adding back the first fraction of distillate to the concentrated oil
Natural citrus essencesSlide13
Citrus comminute are made from whole fruit, in contrast to juice which is expressed from the
pericarp .Essence may be prepared from artificial or natural sources. Artificial
flavorings have connotations of poor quality and dubious safetySlide14
Sweetness is an important aspect of character of carbonated drink and in many countries minimum sugar contents are stipulated. Currently four types are in widespread use- saccharin, cyclamate, which remains in use in a significant number of countries, aspartame and
. A fifth, more recently developed, product, sucralose
, seems likely to be adopted on a large scale in soft drinks.
Acidulates are of considerable importance in determining the sensory quality of carbonated drinks and care must be taken during formulation to obtain correct sugar-acid balance Carbonated soft drink differ from non-carbonated in containing carbonic acid , but since this is not added per se , but formed from carbon dioxide ,its importance is often estimated . Carbonic acid, however, is responsible for the extra sparkle in the mouth-feel, flavor and ‘bite’ which distinguishes carbonated drinks from their non-carbonated counterparts.Slide16
A number of acidulates are permitted in carbonated drinks, of which citric acid is the most common .Each has its own characteristics and some, such as phosphoric and acetic acids, are limited to application in specific drinks.
Coloring has no direct effect on the sensory properties of the beverage but, where permitted, additional coloring is used to reinforce the consumer perception of flavor .In some cases the color is actually of greater important than the taste in overall impression made on the consumer : reds invoke the flavors associated with berry fruits such as blackcurrant and raspberry, orange and yellow invoke citrus flavors , green and blues are associated with peppermint and herbal flavors, while browns complement the ‘heaviness’ of colas, root beer and dandelion.Slide18
Artificial colors, largely
azo dyes, are most commonly suitable from a technological viewpoint due to their stability in the final product and their very high tinctorial strength.
Natural colors are an alternative to artificial , and increasing use has been made of colorings such as
cucurmin, chlorophyll and anthocyanins, Success has been made limited by instability .Nature – identical synthetic
carotenoids, such as beta – carotene are however widely used as yellow- scarlet coloring .Slide19
Caramels used in soft drinks are usually the CLASS FOUR, ammonium
sulphite type .This type of caramel has the additional advantage of strong emulsifying properties and is therefore of particular value where emulsions are present
CLASS FOUR CARAMEL COLORSlide20
Carbonated beverages support the growth of only a limited range of microorganisms but despite this, preservatives are required to prevent the spoilage during storage at ambient temperature . Four major types of preservatives are used in carbonated beverages, sulphur dioxide in form of sulphur dioxide generating salt , benzoic acid and benzoates, esters of parabens, and sorbic acids and sorbatesSlide21
Although ascorbic is employed to protect sensitive compounds in the aqueous phase, the most vulnerable compounds are oil based flavors .Oxidation may be initiated by the introduction of air during the emulsification process .Protection is conferred by the use of oil soluble antioxidants added before emulsification . BUTYLATED HYDROXY ANISOLE and BUTYLATED HYDROXY TOLUENE were widely used in the past but are now the subject of increasing restriction and are being rapidly replaced.Slide22
by natural and nature-identical preservatives such as natural extracts rich in tocopherol (synthetic tocopherol) and ascorbyl palmitate and its salts. Ascorbyl palminate and tocopherols are synergistic and are therefore used in combinations
❷G) EMULSIFIERS, STABILIZERS AND CLOUDING AGENTS
Emulsions are used to impart cloud( neutral emulsions)and flavor (flavor emulsions ).The oil phase typically consists of a citrus essential oil containing an oil-soluble clouding properties, while the aqueous phase consist of a solution of Arabic gum , or a hydrocolloid of similar properties Brominated
vegetable oil was used as an emulsifier system for many years, but while of very good technological performance was withdrawn due to safety issues.Many alternatives have been sought including sucrose esters, such as sucrose
diacetate , hexa-isobutyrate, rosin esters ,protein clouds, benzoate esters of glycerol, waxes and gum exudates.Slide24
Stabilizers are used both to stabilize emulsions and to maintain the dispersion of fruit solids. Stabilizers also increase viscosity and improve the mouth feel .Alginates, carrageen, pectin, various gums including guar gum and carboxy methyl cellulose are most widely used.Slide25
❸ CARBON DIOXIDE
Carbon dioxide is a colorless, non-toxic, inert gas that is virtually tasteless and is readily available at a reasonable cost. It is soluble in liquids, the degree of solubility increasing as the liquid temperature decreases, and can exist as a gas, liquid or a solid. When dissolved in water it forms carbonic acid.
It is carbonic acid that produces the acidic and biting taste found in carbonated waters and soft drinks. Above a certain level of carbonation carbon dioxide has a preserving property, having an effective antimicrobial effect against moulds and yeasts.Slide26
It achieves this with moulds by depriving the moulds of oxygen required for growth whilst with yeasts it tends to stop the production of more carbon dioxide as a by-product of the fermentation of sucrose to ethanol
Production of carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is produced commercially by several different processes. These include the combustion of flue oil, the reaction between sulphuric acid and sodium bicarbonate, the extraction of carbon dioxide from the flue gas of a boiler or similar heating facility, the distillation of alcohol and the fermentation of beer. It can also be extracted from waste gas streamsSlide27
1 ) FERMENTATION
When a sucrose-based solution is mixed with yeast and oxygen in a fermenter, carbon dioxide vapor and alcohol are produced. The carbon dioxide can then be passed through a separator to remove trace carryover of foam. Once the foam has been removed the carbon dioxide is compressed.
It is then scrubbed by water in a packed tower, removing water-soluble impurities such as alcohol and ketones.Slide28
A typical process flowchart is shown in Figure . The system can operate with inlet purity as low as 80% recovering up to 99.9% CO2. Such a plant can yield up to 99.998% pure carbon dioxide. Such plants operate in both breweries and distilleries. This process normally provides the cheapest source of carbon dioxide when it is available in sufficient quantity.
Typical carbon dioxide fermentation recovery system.Slide29
2) FLUE GAS RECOVERY
This is based on burning a hydrocarbon fuel such as light oil or natural gas specifically to produce carbon dioxide. The flue gas from this process, which contains less than half a percent of oxygen by volume, is cooled and scrubbed to remove any impurities that may be present. The resultant flue gas is then passed through an absorbent tower where it is contacted with a carbon dioxide absorbing solution.
The resultant absorbing solution, rich in carbon dioxide, is pumped to the stripper tower. The heat from combustion of the fuel is used to release the carbon dioxide in vapour form from the absorbing solution.
The absorbing solution is then recycled and reused. The resultant carbon dioxide vapour is then cooled and further treated to meet the requirements for use within a beverage.Slide30
5) Recovery levels in excess of 95% are possible.The
consumption of steam is the single most important cost item. Gas turbines can be used but normally give rise to high energy costs and are normally discounted. Large manufacturers of aerated waters and carbonated soft drinks manufacture their own carbon dioxide on site. They purchase packaged systems thereby reducing their operating costs.
Carbon dioxide production by flue gas recovery. (A) Recirculation cooler, (B) recirculation pump, (C) cooler, (D) lean/rich exchangerSlide31
3) Membrane separation systems
These have been around for some time, but until recently the membranes were not reliable enough in operation to be commercially viable
They purify CO2 from waste gas streams with low CO2 concentrations. They can recover CO2 down to a level of 8%, though commercially greater than 20% is thought viable.
The process operates at pressures less than 10 bar. The membranes use the fact that CO2 and water vapour are fast gases that quickly permeate the membrane allowing nitrogen to flow through the fibre
bores as the waste stream.Slide32
4) Fast gases are hydrogen, helium and water vapour, whilst the moderately fast gases are carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide
. The slow gases that will not permeate the membrane include the aliphatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen and argon.5) It is very efficient to separate CO2 from nitrogen and methane, but it is difficult to separate gases with similar permeation rates like CO2 from oxygen and CO2 from hydrogen. It will give purity levels up to 95%.
Membrane CO2 recovery system.Slide33
Carbonation may be considered as the impregnation of a liquid with carbon dioxide gas.
The physics of carbonation show that it is simpler to carbonate if the product temperature is low. Hence early carbonators used refrigeration to carbonate at ca. 4◦C
A typical system is shown sketched as Figure The water only is often carbonated
to ensure minimum contamination of the system by syrup. The product is spread over chilled plates, such that the product runs down the plates as a thin film..Slide34
This is carried out in a constant pressure carbon dioxide atmosphere, the lighter air that is displaced being bled off The product being chilled as a film maximizes the surface area available to the carbon dioxide thus promoting effective carbonation. This also has the added benefit that at a lower temperature the carbon dioxide stays in solution easier, thus minimizing future filling problems.
However, the energy usage is high and packaging problems are created due to condensation within shrink wrapped packs as the temperature reaches ambient conditions. This is especially a problem for steel cans where corrosion can easily occur. To overcome this problem the packaged product requires to be warmed to ambient conditions thereby further
increasing the energy load.Slide35
In general, carbonators take the form shown schematically in Figure Two
basic methods are possible. These are the injection and dispersion of carbon dioxide into the liquid to be carbonated, and the fine spraying of the product into a carbon dioxide atmosphere.
For batch production it has been found by experience that the most effective method is to spray the water into a carbon dioxide atmosphere within a pressurized vessel. Using nozzles to achieve this will give an efficiency of the order of 75% as will spraying the water over cascade plates. Higher efficiencies up to 95% can be achieved by using packing within the pressure vessel column.
Owing to the difficulty of effectively cleaning these systems, water rather than product issued during the carbonation process. This implies that higher carbonation values must be achieved with the water, as when it is mixed with the syrup to form the product the carbonation levels will be diluted by the throw ratio of the mix and also by small losses which will inevitably occur during any process..Slide36
The rate of flow and the pressure of the carbon dioxide are critical to ensure that the correct carbonation level is reached. The greater the liquid surface area exposed to the carbon dioxide the higher the rate of absorption of the carbon dioxide by the liquid
Typical carbonation system.
Simple in-line carbonatorSlide37
In-line carbonation methods are being used increasingly. These either
sparge carbon dioxide into the liquid or inject the liquid into a gas stream. When the gas is
sparged into the liquid this allows small bubbles of gas to be formed which can be
easily absorbed by the liquid.
The higher the pressure the smaller the gas bubbles formed at the
sparger and the greater the gas bubbles surface area made available for the gas to be absorbed by the liquid. Most modern systems inject the liquid into the gas as this achieves faster dissolution. These injectors can be simply cleaned prior to a product change, therefore ensuring that no product contamination will occur.
They often use a
to ensure more contact area and employ specially designed nozzles to maximize the carbonation efficiency, with claims in excess of 99% being made. A typical simple in-line carbonator is shown in previous slide .Slide38
BEVERAGES : TECHNOLOGY, CHEMISTRY AND MICROBIOLOGY - ALAN H. VARNAM AND JANEP. SUTHERLAND
CARBONATED SOFT DRINK : FORMULATION AND MANUFACTURE
- DAVID P. STEEN AND PHILIP R.ASHRUSTSlide39Slide40
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