Human Sexuality Human sexuality…

Human Sexuality Human sexuality… - Description

In all . species of animals, including the human species, . sexual behavior is directed by a complex interplay between . hormone . actions in the brain that give rise to sexual . arousal . and . physical experiences . ID: 678800 Download Presentation

6K - views

Human Sexuality Human sexuality…

In all . species of animals, including the human species, . sexual behavior is directed by a complex interplay between . hormone . actions in the brain that give rise to sexual . arousal . and . physical experiences .

Similar presentations


Download Presentation

Human Sexuality Human sexuality…




Download Presentation - The PPT/PDF document "Human Sexuality Human sexuality…" is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.



Presentation on theme: "Human Sexuality Human sexuality…"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Human Sexuality

Slide2

Human sexuality…

In all

species of animals, including the human species,

sexual behavior is directed by a complex interplay between

hormone

actions in the brain that give rise to sexual arousal and physical experiences with a sexual reward. In most animals, sexual activity and responses are primarily a matter of biology.

Human sexual behavior is different from the sexual behavior of other animals, however. While "lower" animals or species partake in sexual behavior because they are driven by a "force" to reproduce, humans are not sexually active just for the sake of reproduction. There are a variety of complex factors that lead people to have sex. Human sexuality is the way in which we experience and express ourselves as sexual beings.

Slide3

Human sexuality…

From 1938 to 1963, biologist

Alfred Kinsey (1894-1958) used interviews to research human sexual behavior and responses. Although controversial, society was intrigued with findings that showed men and women were more alike in their sexual instincts and preferences than previously thought, and their

sexual behaviors were shaped by social and cultural forces.

The Kinsey Institute used interviews to collect data about human sexual practices, including intercourse, anal and oral sex, masturbation, extramarital sex, erogenous zones (parts of the body involved in sexual arousal), sexual fantasy, homosexual, heterosexual, bisexual experiences, foreplay, nudity, orgasm, premarital sex, and sex with prostitutes.

Those and current research findings have concluded that the lower the socioeconomic class, the more permissive the sexual behavior.

Slide4

Human sexuality…

Human

Sexual Response

(1966)

by William Masters and Virginia Johnson summarizes the research they did over a 30 year period starting in the late 1950’s. They used direct observation to examine sexual responses, which was controversial but gave a reliable picture of what happens to the body during sexual behavior.

Their primary contribution has been to help define sexuality as a healthy human trait and the experience of great pleasure and deep intimacy during sex (rather than just to procreate) is a socially acceptable goal. They focused on sexual functioning, sexual problems and therapeutic interventions (sexual therapy) for these problems, and helped move society toward a more open discussion of sexual practices and experiences. Findings were published just prior to the sexual revolution of the 1960’s, when attitudes toward sex became much more permissive.

Slide5

Human sexuality…

Sexuality in human beings is influenced by society, but not all societies agree on what they consider appropriate or desirable. There are 3 categories of laws in the United States that govern sexuality:

Laws concerned with the preservation of public sensibilities

. These outlaw public sexual activity that is found offensive, such as exhibitionism (displaying one’s genitals to those not wanting to view them), voyeurism (peeping), locations of strip clubs, sex shops, etc., and obscenities (vulgar language or gestures).

Slide6

Human sexuality…

B.

Laws concerned with the protection of the person

. These are based on the element of consent. Society views minors (pedophilia), mentally ill, and mentally handicapped individuals as too immature or incapable of giving consent. Others

choose

not to give consent. Sexual acts with these individuals is called rape.Sexual assault is any type of sexual activity that a person does not agree

to, including unwanted touching; putting something into the vagina; sexual intercourse; rape; and attempted rape. Date rape refers to sexual assault by a ‘date’ or ‘an acquaintance’, rather than by a stranger. Date rape, or ‘club drugs’ can easily be slipped into a drink; they often have no color, smell, or taste. The drugs can make the victim weak and confused, or pass out, or lose their memory. Date rape drugs are used on both females and

males, the

three most

of which are:

rohypnol

(

roh

-HIP-

nol

), GHB, and ketamine(KEET-uh-

meen

).

Slide7

Human sexuality…

They include laws about incest (having sexual relations with someone too closely related by blood to be married to), prostitution (sexual acts sold for money),

beastiality

(contact with an animal),

transvestism

(dressing like the opposite sex), pornography (written and pictorial material intended to sexually excite), and homosexuality (same sex contact). Laws concerning sexual conduct and morality are far more extensive in the U.S. than any other nation, but are controversial. There are strong opinions that sexual behavior among consenting adults is private and not subject to public scrutiny.

C. Laws maintaining sexual morality. This constitutes the majority of legislation written, and are heavily influenced by historical and current religious perspectives.

Slide8

Male reproductive system…

To understand the biology of human sexuality, you need to know the anatomical parts and related functions.

The male genitalia are the parts that are visible from the outside of the body… the penis and scrotum.

The scrotum is the sac behind the penis that holds the gonads, or testicles. Muscles attached to the scrotum raise it up or lower it away from the body, to regulate the temperature that is ideal for sperm production. Sperm cannot be produced if the testicles are too hot or too cold.

Slide9

Male reproductive system…

There are two egg-shaped testicles (or testes) in the scrotum. Each is filled with compartments called lobules, and each lobule is filled with seminiferous tubes where sperm are produced.

On the outside of each testicle

is a coiled tube where sperm are stored and allowed to mature. One end connects to the testicle; the other end connects to the vas deferens. It is called the epididymis.

The male hormone testosterone is also produced in the testes.

Slide10

Male reproductive system…

The male sperm, or reproductive cells called gametes, have 3 parts: the head that contains the genetic information from the male; the

midpiece

that serves as an energy source, and the tail or flagellum that provides locomotion. The coating on the head of the sperm contains an enzyme which allows it to penetrate the outside of the female egg.

About 100 million sperm are deposited inside the female vagina during sexual intercourse, when the male has an ejaculation. Unhealthy or limited numbers of sperm can be caused by smog or other environmental toxins, cigarettes, alcohol, illicit drugs, or anabolic steroids.

Slide11

Male reproductive system…

There are two tubes called vas

deferens,

each leading from the epididymis on the side of the testicle to the urethra. At least in part, the vas deferens is also referred to as the spermatic cord. Each vas

deferens is a tube that is approximately 30

centimeters (about 11.8 inches) in length and protected by smooth muscle mass. This muscle mass contracts reflexively during ejaculation in a process called peristalsis, allowing the sperm to flow through it. On its way, the sperm collects secretions from the prostate gland, bulbourethral

(Cowper’s ) glands, and seminal vesicles, all male accessory sex glands.

Slide12

Male reproductive system…

The prostate is about the

size of a small

kiwifruit or a

characterized

by swelling and inflammation. The doctor

will conduct a prostate exam to check for unusual swelling.large walnut, normally weighing between 20 and 30 grams, while a diseased prostate can weigh up to 100 grams and partially block off the urethra. The prostate secretes a milky substance that makes up around 20 – 30% of semen. It also has muscles that help to expel the semen during ejaculation. The prostate can be affected by a number of disorders, all

Slide13

Male reproductive system…

The

two seminal vesicles hold

the liquid that mixes with sperm to form semen.

(Semen

contains fluid from the epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, and vas deferens) The seminal fluids help the sperm swim toward the egg and keep the sperm nourished during the traveling process.

Each seminal vesicle is about two inches long. This gland releases a fluid rich in sugars, which feeds the sperm. The fluid also has clotting properties that make the semen sticky. This ensures the semen clings inside the vagina for enough time for the sperm to travel to the egg.

Slide14

Male reproductive system…

The

two bulbourethral glands, or Cowper's glands, are

roughly the size of a pea and are located

at

the base of the penis, beneath the prostate and slightly behind the urethra.

They have ducts that lead to the urethra. When the male is sexually aroused, the glands produce a few drops or even about a teaspoon of a mucous like fluid called pre-ejaculate. The pre-ejaculate fluid is a viscous, clear, and salty liquid that lubricates and neutralizes any residual acidity in the urethra. The now neutralized urethra is a better environment for the sperm to travel in.

Slide15

Male reproductive system…

The male urethra is a narrow

fibromuscular

tube that conducts urine and semen from the

bladder

and ejaculatory ducts, respectively, to the exterior of the body through the penis. It has an average length of about 8 inches, extending from the bladder to the opening or meatus. It is a single structure composed of

segments.

Slide16

Male reproductive system…

The human penis contains 3 chambers surrounded by a sheath called the bucks fascia. Before sexual arousal, the penis hangs flaccid (soft and limp). During sexual arousal, the brain sends messages to the nerves in the penis, causing muscles to relax and allowing blood to flow into the chamber filled with erectile tissue. The blood creates pressure, allowing the penis to expand and extend away from the body. This is called an erection.

At birth the prepuce (foreskin) is attached to the rounded head of the penis, called the glans penis. Circumcision is the surgical removal of this foreskin, sometimes done for hygiene and/or religious reasons. At the end of the glans penis is the opening to the urethra, called the meatus. At the base of the glans is a ridge called the corona. The glans is covered in nerve endings, creating sensitivity to stimulation.

Smegma

, a lubricant, accumulates under the prepuce.

Slide17

Female reproductive system…

Female genitalia or vulva: The

labia

majora

are two

larger folds of skin extending from the front of the vaginal opening to the back of it. The outer surfaces of the folds have darker-colored skin and stronger hairs, while the inner folds are smoother.The labia majora join to form the cleft shape of the female genitals.

Inside the labia majora are the labia minora, two folds of skin that also extend down from the clitoris and around the vaginal opening. The labia provide protection over the vaginal

opening and help with the cleaning

of the vagina, eliminating the need for internal cleansing or douching in the average woman. The fatty tissue over the pubis bone, covered by

pubic

hair, is called the

mons

pubis, also part of

the vulva.

The

vulva also functions as a sexual organ, as the many nerve endings in this area can provide pleasure when properly stimulated.

Mons Pubis

Slide18

Female reproductive system…

The clitoris is the female sexual organ found where the labia

minora

meet.

It consists of a rounded area or head, called the glans, and a longer part, called the shaft, which contains

chambers similar to those of the penis.

The tissue of the inner lips normally covers the shaft of the clitoris, which makes a hood, or prepuce, to protect it. The size and shape vary considerably among women. There is a high concentration of nerve endings in the clitoris and in the area immediately surrounding it, making it very sensitive to direct or indirect touch or pressure. When a woman becomes sexually aroused, both the glans and the shaft fill with blood and increase in size. There is no evidence that a larger clitoris means more intense sexual arousal.

Slide19

Female reproductive system…

penis during sexual intercourse, and in functioning as the birth canal so the baby can pass through.

It

is also the passageway for a woman's menstrual flow from the uterus. Most of the nerve endings are at the entrance to the vagina, allowing for pleasure during sexual activities. The two pea-sized

Bartholin's

glands located on either side of the vaginal opening produce a small amount of smegma, a lubricant during sexual excitement. The hymen is a thin membrane that surrounds the opening to the vagina at birth. It normally allows for the discharge of menstrual blood; but may break completely during stretching from vigorous exercise, sexual intercourse, etc.

The vagina is a muscular passage that connects the uterus to the exterior of the body, where the opening is protected by the labia. The vagina is lined with mucous membranes, with ‘wetness’ influenced by hormones. Mucous levels increase during sexual arousal; they decrease with aging. During ovulation, the mucous becomes the consistency of egg whites.A vagina is about 3 inches long, but can expand in length and width to allow for insertion of the male’s

Slide20

Female reproductive system…

The 2 ovaries are

ductless

glands, firm and smooth and about the size of an almond,

in which the female reproductive

cells called ova are produced. Each ovary is divided into compartments called follicles, each containing an immature ovum. During ovulation, a follicle expels a ripened egg under the stimulation of the luteinizing

and follicle-stimulating hormones. The now-empty follicle or the corpus luteum, secretes the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstruation.

Slide21

Female reproductive system…

The

uterus is a female reproductive organ located between the bladder and the rectum, in the pelvic area. The uterus has three layers: the inner lining (endometrium); the middle muscular layer (myometrium

) that helps push a baby into the birth canal during delivery;

and the outer layer (

perimetrium). The main purpose of the uterus is to house and protect a fetus prior to birth. In menstruating females, the ovaries release eggs which travel via the fallopian tubes to the uterus. If

fertilized, the eggs will implant/bind themselves to the wall of the uterus and the fetus will develop. The top portion of the uterus is called the fundus.Fundus

Slide22

Female reproductive system…

One of the two Fallopian tubes will carry

an egg from the ovary to the uterus.

Each

fallopian tube is

about 4–5 inches long and 0.2–0.6 inch in diameter. The channel of the tube is lined with a layer of mucous membrane that has many folds and projections of tissue.

AmpullaFimbriaIsthmusThe fimbria are fingerlike branches at the end of the tube

sweeping over the

ovaries, catching and channeling the released egg from the ovary into the hand-like portion called the ampulla. The isthmus connects the ampulla to the fundus of the uterus. Conception occurs if a sperm fertilizes an egg in the fallopian tube within approximately 24 hours after the egg is released from the ovary.

Slide23

Female reproductive system…

The

cervix

of the uterus attaches

the vagina to the uterus. It is approximately

1” diameter and 1 ½” tall, approximately half of which extends into the vaginal canal, and is made of cartilage. The cervix produces a mucus that aids in carrying sperm from the vagina to the uterus. When the woman isn't ovulating or menstruating, the cervical mucus

thickens. Normally, the cervical opening is about the diameter of a pencil. During childbirth, the cervix thins out (effacement) and dilates to 10 centimeters to allow the baby to pass through the birth canal. Once the baby is born and the placenta (afterbirth)

is expelled, the cervix begins to thicken and

close.

Slide24

Female reproductive system…

The breast is the tissue overlying the chest (pectoral) muscles. Women's breasts are made of specialized tissue that produces

milk, mammary glands, and

fatty tissue.

The mammary glands are organized into lobules

, where milk is produced. The milk travels through a network of tiny tubes called ducts, which eventually exit the skin in the nipple. The dark area of skin surrounding the nipple is called the areola (ah REE ah

lah).Nerves provide sensation to the breast. The breast also contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and lymph nodes.Prompted by the hormone prolactin, the first secretion from the breast is colostrum, a thicker yellow substance that provides easily digestible nutrition and the mother’s immunities. About 3 days later, milk is secreted.

Slide25

The average woman has a 28 day fertility cycle. Day 1 is assigned to the first day of her menstrual period. That menstrual cycle lasts an average of 5 days. From day 6-12 or 13, a new egg is maturing inside an ovarian follicle, and a new lining is forming inside the uterus in preparation for a fertilized egg. On day 14 or so, the mature egg erupts from the follicle and is swept up and into the fallopian tube. Any sperm that were already present in the tube or that newly enter the tube may fertilize the egg during the next 24 hours.

If the egg is not fertilized, it dissolves and the uterine lining continues to thicken. If the egg IS fertilized, it implants itself in the uterine lining. The empty follicle, filled with corpus

luteum

, now produces large amounts of progesterone to signal the body that a pregnancy is proceeding.

Female fertility cycle…

Slide26

The menstrual cycle

is hormonally driven, and can

be divided into approximately two

halves: In

the

follicular phase

, secretions of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estrogen support the growth of the follicle (the cell complex that surrounds and nurtures the egg) in the ovary and build up the lining of the uterus to receive a fertilized egg. At mid-cycle, when the egg is ready, a surge of LH and FSH chemically signals

the ovary to release the egg. This stage is called

ovulation

, and is the optimum time for fertilization to take place

.

Female fertility hormones…

Slide27

In the luteal phase

, the remnants of the follicle (corpus

luteum

) keep secreting estrogen and progesterone to maintain the readiness of the uterus. If the egg is fertilized, then the luteal phase continues throughout pregnancy. If the egg is not fertilized, then the corpus

luteum dies, the uterus sheds its lining, menses begins.

Female menstrual cycle, days 1-5…Most periods vary from light to heavy flows; they tend to get shorter and more regular with age. The average U.S. girl gets her first period at age 12, called the ‘menarche’, but the range of age is about 8 to 15 years old.

Women usually have periods until about ages 45 to 55, ‘menopause’.

Slide28

Problems with periods include the following: amenorrhea (Ā men ah REE ah) (no period), dysmenorrhea (painful period), and abnormal bleeding.

Female menstrual cycle, days 1-5…

Women wear a pad externally or a tampon internally to collect the menstrual flow. A tampon should be changed every 4-8 hours to avoid TSS

(toxic shock syndrome), a potentially deadly disease

.

Slide29

Ovulation, day 14…

Each month inside the woman’s ovaries, a group of eggs starts to grow in small, fluid-filled sacs called follicles. Eventually one of the eggs erupts from the follicle (ovulation). It usually happens about two weeks before the next period.

After the egg leaves the follicle, the follicle develops into the corpus

luteum

. The corpus

luteum

releases a hormone that helps thicken the lining of the uterus, getting it ready for the egg.

Slide30

As the woman approaches ovulation, the estrogen levels begin to surge, which causes the

cervix to secrete more “fertile quality

cervical mucus, also known as egg white cervical mucus (EWCM

). It is clear, stretchy

, and less acidic, and is the perfect protective medium for sperm in terms of texture and pH.

Ovulation, day 14…

I

f

cervical mucus is thick, sticky, and

cloudy, it

has a closely knit fiber

structure,

low water-content,

and is acidic. Sperm are

caught up in it, and are immobilized by the acidic environment.

Only

if cervical mucus is in a thin, slippery, less acidic state will sperms be able to penetrate, and survive the fluid,

and that is

only naturally possible during ovulation.

Slide31

Sexual intercourse…

Sexual

intercourse, also called

coitus

, or

copulation

, is the reproductive act in which the male penis enters the female vagina. If the reproductive act is complete, an average of 100 million sperm are ejaculated from the male body into the female.

In human beings, a pattern of physiological events occurs during sexual arousal and intercourse

. These events take place in 4 stages or phases, identified by Masters & Johnson: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

Slide32

Sexual intercourse…

General

characteristics of the

excitement phase

, which can last from a few minutes to several hours, include the following:

Muscle tension increases.Heart rate quickens and breathing is accelerated.Skin may become flushed (blotches of redness appear on the chest and back).Nipples become hardened or erect.

Blood flow to the genitals increases, resulting in

swelling

of the woman's clitoris and labia

minora

(inner lips), and erection of the

man's

penis.

Vaginal lubrication begins.

The woman's breasts become fuller and the

vaginal

walls begin to swell.

The man's testicles swell, his scrotum tightens,

and

he begins secreting a lubricating liquid.

Activities that create this sexual arousal are commonly referred to as ‘foreplay’.

Slide33

Sexual intercourse…

General

characteristics of the

plateau

phase

,

which extends to the brink of orgasm, include the following:The changes begun in phase 1 are intensified.The vagina continues to swell from increased blood flow, and the vaginal walls turn a dark purple.

The woman's clitoris becomes highly sensitive (may

even

be painful to touch) and retracts under

the

clitoral hood to avoid direct stimulation

from

the penis.

The man's testicles are withdrawn up into the

scrotum

.

Breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure continue to

increase

.

Muscle spasms may begin in the feet, face

, & hands

.

Muscle tension increases.

Slide34

Sexual intercourse…

The

orgasm

is the climax of the sexual response cycle. It is the shortest of the phases and generally lasts only a few seconds. General characteristics of this phase include the following

:

Involuntary muscle contractions

begin Blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing are at their highest rates, with a rapid intake of oxygen.Muscles in the feet spasm.There is a sudden, forceful release of sexual tension.

In women, the muscles of the vagina contract. The uterus also undergoes

rhythmic

contractions.

In men, rhythmic contractions of the muscles at the base of the penis result

in

the ejaculation of semen.

A rash, or "sex flush" may appear over the entire body.

Slide35

Sexual intercourse…

During the final

resolution phase

,

the body slowly returns to its normal level of functioning, and swelled and erect body parts return to their previous size and color. This phase is marked by a general sense of well-being, enhanced intimacy and, often, fatigue. Some women are capable of a rapid return to the orgasm phase with further sexual stimulation and may experience multiple orgasms. Men need recovery time after orgasm, called a refractory period, during which they cannot reach orgasm again. The duration of the refractory period varies among men and usually lengthens with advancing age.

Slide36

Sexual intercourse…

Men equate satisfaction more with having an orgasm (physical satisfaction), while women report more importance on emotional satisfaction.

It has been suggested that human beings are supposed to be in a loving relationship to have a satisfying sexual experience… since we are ‘the only animal species that has intercourse ‘face-to-face’.

The sex act itself is simply biology: chemical (hormonal) influences and physical stimulation followed by physical responses that provide sexual release. This can be achieved without sexual intercourse.

Many human beings, however, prefer sexual intimacy

within a loving relationship

to achieve full satisfaction.

Slide37

Conception…

During sexual intercourse, If

one sperm

makes

its way into the Fallopian tube and

burrows

into the egg, it fertilizes the egg. That is the moment of conception. The egg changes so that no other sperm can get in. At the instant of fertilization, the genetic information is passed on, and the sex of the infant is determined. All eggs carry the X chromosome. If the egg is fertilized by a sperm with a Y chromosome, the baby will be a boy. If the egg is fertilized by a sperm with an X chromosome, the baby will be a girl. If the sperm has a Y chromosome, your baby will be a boy. If it has an X chromosome, the baby will be a girl.

Slide38

Conception…

The fertilized egg, or zygote, stays in the Fallopian tube for about three to four days, but within 24 hours of being fertilized it starts dividing very fast into many cells. It keeps dividing as it moves slowly through the fallopian tube to the

uterus.

Ectopic

pregnancies result from a fertilized egg staying in the tube rather than traveling to the uterus.

Un-aborted ectopic pregnancies can rupture the uterine tube causing life-threatening bleeding or loss of fertility.

Un-aborted ectopic pregnancies can rupture the uterine tube causing life-threatening bleeding or loss of fertility. This type of abortion would be referred to as a ‘therapeutic abortion’, rather than an ‘elective abortion’.

Slide39

Pregnancy…

Not all fertilized eggs successfully implant and result in a pregnancy. If a pregnancy occurs, the

lining of the uterus gets thicker and the cervix is sealed by a plug of

mucus that will stay

in place until the baby is ready to be

born. Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone present in the woman’s blood from the time of conception; it is produced by the cells that form the placenta. A blood or urine test

will usually detect hCG. The divided zygote, now called a blastocyst, moves into the uterus. It will burrow into the uterine wall called the endometrium; that process is called implantation.

Slide40

Contraception…

Not all couples who have sexual intercourse want to have a baby. They might choose to use methods of contraception (birth control).

The

best way to reduce the risk of unintended pregnancy among women who are sexually active is to use effective birth control correctly and consistently.

Birth control failure rates are directly related to the degree of human error possible with each method.

The ONLY 100% effective method of birth control, which is also 100% effective against sexually transmitted diseases, is

abstinence… choosing NOT to have sexual intercourse.

Slide41

Natural Methods of

Contraception…

Basal

body temperature

is body temperature when fully at rest. Ovulation causes the temperature to rise. To track basal body temperature, it must be taken every day before getting out of

bed, using a thermometer designed

to measure basal body temperature or a digital oral thermometer. Temperatures can be taken vaginally or rectally, but must be consistent. The average change in temperature is less than one degree during ovulation. During the two or three days when basal body temperature rises, is when ovulation is occurring. Do not have unprotected sex during those days in order to avoid pregnancy. Caution: ovulation is not the only thing that can change basal body temperature.

Many factors can influence the temperature

including

shift work, medications, stress, illness, alcohol, traveling, interrupted sleep cycles, oversleeping, and gynecological

disorders.

Slide42

Natural Methods of

Contraception…

The ‘

calendar method’ or ‘rhythm method

’ of birth control is simply charting the woman’s fertility cycle, and avoiding unprotected sex during the 3 days or so around predicted ovulation. If the woman does not have regular periods, this method is very ineffective.

Some women use the

cervical mucous method to determine the days of greatest fertility. When cervical mucous is clear and slippery, and stretches between the fingers, unprotected sexual intercourse is avoided. Natural methods of contraception tend to have failure rates as high as 25%, due to human error.

Slide43

Hormonal Methods of Contraception…

Implant

—The

implant is a single, thin rod that is inserted under the skin of a women’s upper arm. The rod contains a progestin that is released into the body over 3 years.

Failure rate is nearly 0%.

Injection

or "shot"—Women get shots of the hormone progestin in the buttocks or arm every three months from their doctor. Typical failure rate is 6%.Oral contraceptives—Also called “the pill,” they either contain the hormones estrogen and

progestin OR the ‘mini pill’ contains progestin only. They are

prescribed by a doctor. A pill is taken at the same time each day. If you are older than 35 years and smoke, have a history of blood clots or breast cancer, your doctor may advise you not to take the pill. Typical

failure rate is

9%.

Slide44

Hormonal Methods of Contraception…

Patch

—This

skin patch is worn on the lower abdomen, buttocks, or upper body (but not on the breasts). This method is prescribed by a doctor. It releases hormones progestin and estrogen into the bloodstream. You put on a new patch once a week for three weeks. During the fourth week, you do not wear a patch, so you can have a menstrual period. Typical use failure rate: 9%, but may be higher in women who weigh more than 198 pounds.

Hormonal

vaginal contraceptive ring—The ring releases the hormones progestin and estrogen. You place the ring inside your vagina. You wear the ring for three weeks, take it out for the week you have your period, and then put in a new ring. Typical use failure rate: 9%.

Slide45

Barrier Methods of Contraception…

Worn by the man, a

male condom

blocks sperm from getting into a woman’s body. Condoms are made of latex, other synthetics, or natural/lambskin. They help prevent pregnancy;

latex and synthetics help prevent

sexually

transmitted diseases (STD’s). Typical failure rate: 18%. Condoms can only be used once. You can buy them over-the-counter at drug stores. Do not use with massage oils or oil-based lubricants.

Diaphragm or

cervical cap

: The

diaphragm is shaped like a shallow cup. The cervical cap is a thimble-shaped cup. Before sexual intercourse,

you apply spermicide and insert them inside the vagina over the cervix. They block or kill

sperm.

The doctor must fit them, as they come in different

sizes. Typical

failure

rate: 12%.

Slide46

Barrier Methods of Contraception…

The

female condom

helps keeps sperm from getting into her body. It is packaged with a lubricant and is available at drug stores. It can be inserted up to eight hours before sexual intercourse. Typical failure rate: 21%, and also may help prevent STDs.

Spermicides

work by killing sperm and come in several forms—foam, gel, cream, film, suppository, or tablet. They are placed in the vagina no more than one hour before intercourse. You leave them in place at least six to eight hours after intercourse. You can use a spermicide in addition to a male condom, diaphragm, or cervical cap. They can be purchased at drug stores. Typical use failure rate: 28%.

Slide47

Contraception…

Intrauterine devices

interfere with implantation of a fertilized egg. They are 99+% effective. The IUD is placed in the uterus by a doctor, and can be left in place for years. Some types of IUD’s release a small amount of hormone, while others do not.

Emergency

contraception

is NOT a regular method of birth control, but

can be used after no birth control was used during sex, or if the birth control method failed, such as if a condom broke. Women can have the non-hormonal type of IUD inserted within five days of unprotected sex, or take emergency contraceptive pills up to 5 days after unprotected sex. Three different types of emergency contraceptive pills, referred to as ‘morning after pills’, are available in the United States; some are available over the counter.

IUD’s and emergency contraception are not appropriate for individuals who are pro-life, as they do not prevent conception.

Emergency Contraception…

Slide48

Permanent Contraception - Sterilization…

The following methods have a

failure

rate of less than 1%.

Female Sterilization—

Tubal ligation or “tying tubes”— A woman can have her fallopian tubes tied (or closed) so that sperm and eggs

cannot meet for fertilization. The procedure can be done in a hospital or in an outpatient surgical center; activities can be resumed in a few days. Transcervical Sterilization— A thin tube is used to thread a tiny device into each fallopian tube. It irritates the fallopian tubes and causes scar tissue to grow and permanently plug the tubes over a period of about 3 monthsMale Sterilization–

Vasectomy

—The vas deferens are cut and tied, so the man’s

ejaculate never has any sperm in it that can fertilize an egg. The procedure is done at an outpatient surgical

center; activities can sometimes be resumed the next day.

Slide49

Other expressions of sexuality…

Not all men and women express their sexuality through intercourse, for various reasons: curiosity, fear of pregnancy, lack of suitable partner, low sexual libido (desire) around partners, fear of STI (sexually transmitted infection) or medical conditions that make intercourse painful or cause erectile dysfunction.

Ways to achieve sexual satisfaction, without intercourse, might include oral sex (mouth to genital contact), anal sex (sodomy; using the anus instead of the vagina for penetration), masturbation (self-stimulation of the genitals), fantasizing, massage, use of sexual devices (vibrator or dildo/phallus/representation of erect penis), use of pornography, etc.

No man or woman should ever participate in any expression of sexuality against their will, or that makes them feel uncomfortable.

Slide50

Human Sexuality

The End