Management of Plant D iseases

Management of Plant  D iseases Management of Plant  D iseases - Start

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Outline. Review the disease triangle . The . disease cycle. . Management . strategies. . Interrupting . the disease cycle. The Disease Triangle. Environment. Pathogen. Host. The Disease Triangle. ID: 740733 Download Presentation

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Management of Plant D iseases




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Presentations text content in Management of Plant D iseases

Slide1

Management of Plant

D

iseases

Slide2

Outline

Review the disease triangle

The

disease cycle

Management

strategies

Interrupting

the disease cycle

Slide3

The Disease Triangle

Environment

Pathogen

Host

Slide4

The Disease Triangle

Soybean rust

Slide5

Disease Cycle

Survival

Inoculum produced

Dispersal

Infection

Colonization

Symptoms

Production of survival structures

Adapted from P. Vincelli, 2005

Management = interrupt the disease cycle

Slide6

What causes plant diseases?

Nematodes

Bacteria

Viruses

Fungi

Slide7

Fungi

Bacteria

Viruses

Nematodes

Survival

Crop residue

Soil

Alt. hosts

-

Crop residue

Soil

Alt. hosts

Insect vectors

-

-

Alt. hosts

Insect vectors

Crop residue

Soil

-

-

Dispersal

Wind

Rain

Insects

Wind

Rain

Insects

-

-

Insects

Tillage

Equipment

Water run-off

Infection

Directly

Wounds

Insect feeding

-

Wounds

Insect feeding

-

-

Insect feeding

Directly

-

-

Comparison of Disease Cycles

Slide8

Management Practices

Variety selection

Manage

insects, weeds, and nematodes

Cultural practices

(rotation, tillage, planting date, etc.)

Reduce plant stress

(population,

weed management,

fertility)

Fungicides

(seed treatments, foliar fungicides)

GOAL: interrupt the disease cycle

Slide9

Management Practices

Resistance

- prevents colonization and disease development

Variety selection

B. Matthews, ARS

SCN Management Guide, 1999

Slide10

Resistance

- reduces build up of inoculum

Variety selection

Resistant variety has

smaller and yellowish-green color lesions

Susceptible variety has large lesions

Management Practices

Slide11

Seed quality

- plant seed that is high quality

Variety selection

Management Practices

Planting infected seed can inhibit germination, slow seedling growth, or introduce new pathogens into a field.

Slide12

Manage weeds,

insects,

and nematodes

Weeds

- increase

inoculum

- “improve” microclimate for spore production

Desmodium

species

(tick trefoils) are an alternate source of some viruses

Management Practices

Slide13

Insects

- source of inoculum

- provide entry wounds for pathogens

Management Practices

Manage weeds,

insects,

and nematodes

© Marlin E. Rice

Slide14

Nematodes

- interact with other pathogens

The presence

of soybean cyst nematode can increase other soybean diseases like brown stem rot and sudden death

syndrome.

Management Practices

Manage weeds,

insects,

and nematodes

Slide15

Crop rotation

- prevents build up of inoculum

Cultural practices

Competition for food

Destroyed/suppressed

Management Practices

Photo by Brenda Collins, Http://glaucus.org.uk/Fungi-LC.html

Photo courtesy Dr. Randy Martin, Bioworks, inc.

Slide16

Tillage

- decreases surface residue (foliar disease inoculum)

- conservation tillage increases soil moisture

Management Practices

Cultural practices

Slide17

Planting date

- escape infection

- escape severe disease

Harvest date

-

remove plants from field before disease becomes

problematic

Management Practices

Cultural practices

Slide18

High populations

- compete for light,

water,

and nutrients

Heavy weed pressure

- competition

Fertility

- adequate nitrogen and potassium

Management Practices

Reduce plant stress

Slide19

Fungicides

Seed treatments

-

protect

roots from

soilborne

pathogens

Management Practices

Slide20

Fungicides

Foliar fungicides

- stop infection and colonization of host

Penetration

Growth

Sporulation

Pustule

formation

Spore

germination

Management Practices

Syngenta

Slide21

Fungicides

Foliar fungicides

Management Practices

CONSIDERATIONS

Cropping history and percent surface crop residue affect the risk of disease. Many pathogens survive in crop residue, which can be a source of inoculum.

Varieties vary in their susceptibility to diseases.

Disease presence early in the season may result in greater yield loss than diseases that occur later in the season.

Fungicides do not affect diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, or nematodes.

Profitability of a fungicide application depends on the price of grain and the cost of application.

Slide22

Survival

Inoculum produced

Dispersal

Infection

Colonization

Symptoms

Production of survival structures

How does management interrupt the disease cycle?

Interrupting the disease cycle

Slide23

Survival

Inoculum produced

Dispersal

Infection

Colonization

Symptoms

Production of survival structures

Rotation; tillage; planting high quality seed

Interrupting the disease cycle

Slide24

Survival

Inoculum produced

Dispersal

Infection

Colonization

Symptoms

Production of survival structures

Interrupting the disease cycle

Variety

resistance;

fungicides

Slide25

Summary

The disease cycle for all pathogens is essentially the

same.

Effective management strategies break the disease

cycle.

An understanding of the disease cycle will help implement management

strategies.


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