Presentations text content in Principals of Flowering Plants Taxonomy
Principals of Flowering Plants Taxonomy BOT 222
Dr. Najat Abdulwahab Bukhari
University Vision and Mission
To be a world-class university and a leader in developing Saudi Arabia’s knowledge economy
To provide students with a quality education, conduct valuable research, serve the national and international societies and contribute to Saudi Arabia’s knowledge economy through learning, creativity, the use of current and developing technologies and effective international partnership.Slide3
College of science vision and Mission
To be a leader in basic science, its applications and culture to contribute to building the knowledge society.
To offer study programs and developed research projects capable of providing society with knowledge and trained personnel through a stimulating environment for learning, creativity and scientific research with continuing quality to ensure optimal use of technology and general partnership.Slide4
Vision: upgrading the academic and research to keep pace with scientific progress and requirements of society. Mission:Development of Academic process and develop scientific research through strategic planning and a clear vision for science and technology at the country level. As well as training of national cadres, and the introduction of a methodology developed to meet the different needs of society, and to serve the various research and developmental projects in the community
Botany department Vision and MissionSlide5
Plant taxonomy use many characters :
Plant Morphology is the general term for the study of the
(physical form and external structure) of
Vegetative characteristics: (leaves and stems).
Floral characteristics: ( Flower and inflorescence )Slide7
Flower is valuable in plant classification and taxonomy, It is considered one of the most important part of the plant in the plant classification process for the following reasons:The flower is less affected by different environmental and climate conditions. Contain many basic and obvious differences that distinguish the various plants . Therefore, plants are arranged into several Orders, families , Genus and species . For example: aquatic plants may be similar in outward appearance and internal structure, but differ in the composition of flowers and plants as well as xerosis and salt-loving plants.Slide8
The flower is a unique thing in the life of plants angiosperms ,as it is the axis that holds reproduction in organs in the flowering plants, and it’s the key part of sexual reproductionSlide9
flower is regarded as a modified
with shortened internodes and bearing, at its
, structures that may be highly modified
Flowers may be attached to the plant in a few ways. If the flower has no stem but forms in the
of a leaf, it is called
. When one flower is produced, the stem holding the flower is called a
If the peduncle ends with groups of flowers, each stem that holds a flower is called a
. The flowering stem forms a terminal end which is called the torus or receptacle. The parts of a flower are arranged in
on the torus. The four main parts or whorls (starting from the base of the flower or lowest node and working upwards) are as follows:Slide11
: the outer whorl of
; typically these are green, but are petal-like in some species.
: the whorl of
, which are usually thin, soft and colored to attract animals that help the process of
. The coloration may extend into the
, which is visible to the
of insects, but not to the eyes of birds.Slide12
: one or two whorls of
, each a
topped by an
is produced. Pollen contains the male
: one or more
. The female reproductive organ is the
: this contains an ovary with ovules (which contain female gametes). The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen. The supportive stalk, the style becomes the pathway for
to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma, to the ovules, carrying the reproductive material.Slide13Slide14
a bract is a modified leaf or leaf like part just below and protecting an inflorescenceBracts are often (but not always) different from foliage leaves, for example being smaller, larger, or of a different color or texture.Bracts are found in the front of the flower ( the part of flower facing the bracts is called “Anterior Side”) and the other side “Posterior Side”.Slide15
: a small bract that arises on a pedicel instead of subtending it.
can be 2 in
, and one in
one which may be green or
They can differ from each other on where are inserted.Slide16
is the thickened part of a stem from which the
It is often a shape of bulging disc or a rectangular or circular or in the platoon as the
When the receptacle elongate between the Corolla and calyx and its called
and between the corolla and the stamen it is called
. Or elongate between
it is called
contain glands to attract insects so the process of pollination and fertilization, nectar is a sugar syrup .Slide17
The receptacle (grey) in relation to the
(red) in three types of flowers:
Why is the flower the most important parts of the plant in the classification process:
The least part of the plant affected by different environmental and climate conditions.
Contain many basic and obvious differences that distinguish the various plants
(For example, aquatic plants may be similar in outward appearance and internal structure, but differ in the composition of its flowers to belong to different plant families).Slide19
The flower is a unique thing in the life of floral plants angiosperms and It is also the axis that holds the reproduction organs in the flowering plants.
The center of plant reproduction as it is composed to ensure that sexual reproduction and fertilizing eggs .Slide20Slide21
Is composed of a number of sepals may be rarely 2-3 or 4 in one specie the
family or 5 in most of the families. The calyx is the outermost whorl of a flower.
protection of the flower internal organs.
are often green but sometimes it takes the petals colure (
The number of sepals often equal to the number of petals.Slide23
Sepals are often green but sometimes it takes the petals colure ( Petaloid sepalous). The number of sepals often equal to the number of petals.
Sepals often form one ring, but it may sometimes be in two rings. sepals may be loose, as in roses and or it could be fused, as in peas.
There may be additional external
called “Epipetalous" as in the cotton flower or
Calyx could stay on the receptacle and does not fall after the pollination and fertilization, in this case it is called “presistant”, as in the eggplant.
could fall early when the flower opens, in this case it is called “
” as in the Poppy.Slide25
In some cases specially in the tropical flowers the calyx is in the form of portfolio wrapped around a floral bud, and filled with water.
Sepals help in the process of spreading seed and fruit.
and sepals of a flower look similar they are called
They both form