Republican Presidents of the 1920s - PowerPoint Presentation

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Republican Presidents of the 1920s
Republican Presidents of the 1920s

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President Warren Harding Newspaper publisher who became a US senator and then president Campaigned to have America return to normalcy Focus on making America prosperous and less care about foreign policy ID: 510403 Download Presentation

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Republican Presidents of the 1920sSlide2

President Warren Harding

Newspaper publisher who became a U.S. senator and then president

Campaigned to have America “return to normalcy”

Focus on making America prosperous and less care about foreign policyFocus on helping American businessHigher tariffs to keep out foreign goodsTaxed foreign goods at 38.5% of their valueOther countries raised tariffs against American goodsLowered taxes for the richBarely regulated businessSlide3

Harding’s Restrictions on Immigration

Immigrants were required to read and write in their native language in order to enter

Keep out the poor, unskilled, and uneducated

Sparked by nativism in the early 1900sEmergency Quota Act of 1921Drastically reduced the number of immigrants coming to the U.S.Each foreign country was assigned a quota 3% of immigrants from that country living in the U.S. in 1910Slide4

Harding’s Foreign Policy

High tariffs

Washington Naval Conference

Conference meant to encourage disarmament between the U.S. and major naval powersJapan and BritainPartial disarmamentJapanese agree because Americans promised not to fortify Guam or PhilippinesFour-Power TreatyU.S., Britain, Japan, and FranceSettle disputes in the Pacific in a joint conference of the four powersSlide5

Harding and German Reparations

Britain and France owed the U.S. $10 billion in loans

They saw it as a gift, saying that the Allies were fighting the war for the U.S.

Germany owed the Allies reparations under the “War Guilt” ClauseBritain and France began using the reparations to repay the U.S.Germany entered a period of hyperinflation and could not make paymentsFrance and Belgium invaded and world teetered on another warSlide6

Harding and German Reparations

Charles Dawes, an American banker, came up with

the Dawes Plan

Americans would lend Germany money to repay reparationsThen Britain and France would use the reparations to pay their loan debt U.S. Investors  Wall Street  Germany  Britain and France  U.S. Government Slide7

Harding and Scandal

Harding appointed high ranking cabinet positions to friends

Used these positions for personal and financial gain

Teapot Dome ScandalSecretary of the Interior took control of oil-rich lands at Teapot Dome, WyomingLeased them to businessmen for personal bribesSlide8

President Calvin Coolidge

Symbol of old-fashioned American values

Reduced government spending and regulation

Did not interfere in stock market speculationContinued Restriction on ImmigrationBelieved Northern and Western Europeans were superiorExperts even testified to itImmigration Act of 1924/National Origins ActFurther lowered the number of immigrants and reduced quotas to 2% of the 1890 censusPre-WWI Italian immigration  200,000 immigrants per year

Emergency Quota Act 1921  40,000 per year

National Origins Act 1924  4,000 per yearSlide9

Kellogg-Briand Pact

August 1927

15 nations signed the Pact of Paris

Promised not to use war as a part of foreign policyAllowed nations to engage in defensive wars thoughSlide10

President Herbert Hoover

Ran on a campaign to end poverty in America – irony

Continued most of Harding’s and Coolidge’s policies

More willing to intervene than Coolidge had been, but not muchBelieved in the “rugged individualism” of AmericansAmerican business was improving the standard of livingThe “American System” gave everyone an education and equal opportunity…

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