Mona Baker

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In Other Words: a . Coursebook. on Translation (1992). . It . has had great influence on Translation training and consequently Translation studies. . Baker . looks . at equivalence at . six levels. ID: 589091 Download Presentation

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Mona Baker




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Presentations text content in Mona Baker

Slide1

Mona Baker

In Other Words: a

Coursebook

on Translation (1992)

It

has had great influence on Translation training and consequently Translation studies.

Slide2

Baker looks at equivalence at six levels

Word level:

words and phrases for which there are no equivalents in the target  language

Above word level:

collocation,

markedness

, and register (the set of words that might  potentially collocate with the word in question, and by marked collocations. ) , as well as the translation of idioms and fixed expressions

Grammar:

explains number, gender, person, tense, 

aspect, voice, word order and an introduction to the concept of text and its organization

Thematic structure:

covers the concepts of theme and

rheme

Cohesion:

the network of lexical, grammatical and other relations which provide links between various parts of a text

Pragmatic:

The way utterances are used in communicative situations.

Slide3

Thematic and information structure

metafunctions

Slide4

I realized the problem theme rheme

Slide5

Baker incorporates a comparison of nominalization and verbal forms in

theme position

:

1

. Analyzed-were the relations between dopamine and motor functions.

(begins with pronominal verbal form)

2. The relations between dopamine and motor functions were analyzed.

(normalized word order with passive verbal form in the final position)

3. An Analysis is carried out of the relations between dopamine and motor functions.

(use of the nominalized form “analysis” and the addition of a different passive form)

WHY?

To meet the conventions of English abstract

Slide6

The Problem

Thematic structure is realized differently in different languages.

For example, Arabic, Spanish, and Portuguese are

verb inflected languages.

(The verb is in the theme position)

Some languages, like Portuguese,

omit the subject pronoun.

This also creates a different thematic pattern.

Slide7

Halliday VS Baker

Hallidayan model of thematic analysis is

English-oriented

what casts doubt on its validity.

Baker produces

an alternative

:

functional sentence perspective model of thematic structure.

It is more suitable for languages with a frequent VS order.

Why?

1. It takes into account communicative dynamism and word order.

2. It is much more straightforward to implement: theme is in the first position, come what may.

Slide8

The translator should be aware of relative markedness

Relative markedness is

used

to distinguish two meanings of the same term, where one is common usage (unmarked sense) and the other is specialized to a certain cultural context (marked sense

).

1. It helps us to heighten our awareness of meaningful choices made by speakers and writers in the course of communication.

2. It helps in deciding whether it is appropriate to use a marked form or not.

Slide9

Problems of copying ST pattern into TT

1. What is marked varies across languages.

2. Calquing a rigid English word order in VS languages produces a monotonous translation.

3.

Gerzymisch-Arbogast

1986 considers the German calquing of English cleft to be clumsy.

4.

Enkvist

1978 pointed out the dilemma of balancing concern for information dynamics with sometimes incompatible concern for other areas such as basic syntactic patterns.

Slide10

Cohesion

Introduction:

Blum-

Kulka’s

study “Shifts of Cohesion and Coherence in Translation”

All translators tend to use cohesive ties explicitly.

Changes in cohesion in translation may bring about functional shifts in the text.

Some languages need to state the gender of the character.

Slide11

Baker and Cohesion

Baker defines 

cohesion

as

the network of lexical, grammatical and other relations which 

provide links between various parts of a text

” (p. 190

).

In order to have 

cohesion

, a text must have references that the reader can follow clearly and 

consistently

without confusion.

The density and the progression of cohesive ties throughout the text are the most important.

Sometimes this web of relationships differs between St and TT

WHY?

“Because the network of lexical cohesion will not be identified across languages. “ (Baker 1992)

For example

: Portuguese lexical repetition to pronoun use

Slide12

Pragmatics

The study of

language in use

. It is the study of meaning not as generated by linguistics system, but as conveyed and manipulated by the participants in a communicative situation”

Baker explores ways 

in

which translators can be sure to produce translations that faithfully 

reflect

the use in context and typical interpretation in context of the source 

text

.

Slide13

Three major pragmatic concepts

1. Coherence

2. Presupposition

3.

Implicature

Slide14

Coherence

Coherence is defined as the subjective perception that a text has 

internal

consistency and that its references and ideas expressed are clear and 

flow

logically.

The TT must also be coherent.

It must hang together logically in the mind of the TT receiver.

Depends on the hearer’s or the receiver’s expectations and experience of the world

This may be the same for the ST and the TT readers.

Slide15

Presupposition

Presupposition relates to the linguistic and extra-linguistic knowledge the sender assumes the receiver to have or which are necessary in order to retrieve the sender’s message.

For example, “let me now turn to bananas”

Slide16

The problem

The problem occurs when the TT receiver can’t be assumed to possess the

same

background

knowledge as the ST receivers.

Possible reasons?

Because of cultural differences

Because the knowledge is being translated after a time gap when the original information is no longer activated by the reference.

Slide17

Implicature

Baker defines

implicature

as “what the speaker means or implies rather than what s/he said”

Implicature

is 

the

way that people can “understand more than is actually said” (p. 235).

It was developed by Paul Grice.

Slide18

Grice’s rules

Quantity

: Give the amount of information that is necessary. Don’t give too much or too little.

Quality:

Say only what you know to be true or what you can support.

Relevance:

What you say should be relevant to the conversation

Manner:

Say what you need to say in a way that is appropriate to the message you wish to convey and which normally will be understood by the receiver.

Slide19

Some theorists add one more rule…

Politeness

: Be polite in your comments

Note:

Chapter

8, in Baker’s

In other Words,

is new to the second edition and is titled

“Beyond Equivalence: 

ethics

and morality

.”

Slide20

The maxims might be deliberately ignored for a humorous effect.

Some problems are posed for the translator

when the TL works by different maxims.

For example, some vulgar jokes about God

were

omitted

when producing the TT in Arabic

so as not to upset local sensibilities.

Baker notes that the translator should be aware of these principles in operation in the respective languages and cultures.


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