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Memory: Introduction Zara A. Melikyan
Presentation on theme: "Memory: Introduction Zara A. Melikyan"— Presentation transcript:
Zara A. Melikyan
(some slides are courtesy of Dr. G.P.Sutton)
February 5, 2015Slide2
Memory: definition, subtypes and processes
Clinical examples of memory loss - patients H.M. & C.W.
What is memory loss
Example of progressive memory loss - Alzheimer’s dementiaSlide3
Memory is the process in which information is:
- receiving, processing, combining information,
- stored - creation of permanent record of encoded information, - retrieved - calling back the stored information to use in activitySlide4
Temporal Memory Organization
- limited capacity 12 elements (G. Sperling), limited duration (hundreds of milliseconds). Registers all the sensory information.
- HapticShort-Term Memory - limited capacity (7+/-2, or 4-5 elements), limited duration (18-30 sec). Registers information to which attention is paid. Transient patterns of neuronal connection in prefrontal & temporal lobes, hippocampus essential for information consolidation from STM to LTM.
Information is rehearsed and chunked
- close to unlimited capacity, unlimited duration. More stable and permanent changes in neuronal connections throughout the brain.Slide5
Atkinson-Shiffrin Model (1968)
Baddeley & Hitch Model of Working Memory (1974)Slide6
Types of Long-Term Memory
Declarative vs. Nondeclarative
- Memory that can be stated or described
- Capital of Italy
- Memory about perceptual/motor procedures
- Demonstrated via performance (not conscious recollection)
- Riding a bicycleSlide8
Episodic vs. Semantic
- Detailed autobiographical memory
-15th birthday party
Semantic- Generalized declarative memory
- Facts and information acquired through learning
- Capital of ItalySlide9
Skill Learning vs. Priming vs. Conditioning
Learning how to perform a task by repeating a process
Retrograde amnesiaLoss of memories prior to an event. Disruption of memory consolidation
Inability to form new memories (e.g. H.M., C.W.)Slide16
Study of Memory
: word lists, paragraphs
- Visual: shapes, objects, scenes - Tactile, audial, memory for smellsLearning and immediate retrieval, delayed recall, recognitionRecency and Primacy EffectsSlide17
Progressive Memory Loss: Alzheimer’s Dementia
from Latin: “de” - to depart, “mens” - mind, being out of one's mind.
General term that describes a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline in mental ability severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. These symptoms:
- Are not present since birth
- Are a change from previous baseline mental function
- Last more than six months
- Not associated with a loss/alteration of consciousness
- Not due to other medical conditions (e.g. depression)
Dementias have different etiologies: primary - organic brain degeneration (AD), secondary (TBI, infection, intoxication, etc.).
Dementia is very wide spread due to increased life expectancy and decreased birth: 2010 worldwide 35.6 million, in 2030 65.7 million, in 2050 115.4 million;
AD 50-75% of all types of dementia;
Associated with significant cost: lost jobs for patients and caregivers, medical supplies and drugs, home modification, care, nursing homeSlide18
Progressive Memory Loss: Alzheimer’s Dementia
Alzheimer’s Dementia named after Aloysius (Alois) Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist who identified the first case of the disease in 1906;
His patient Mrs. Auguste Dete, a 51 year old woman experiencing symptoms of memory loss, unusual behavioral changes, hallucinations, delusions, and impaired social functioning;
Post-mortem brain examination by Dr. Alzheimer revealed AD markers: amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and arteriosclerotic alterations of brain matter.Slide19
Alzheimer’s Dementia: Symptoms
Symptoms worsen over time. Symptoms may vary but, at least two of the following mental functions must be significantly impaired:
First short-term memory: keeping track of purse, wallet, keys, paying bills, planning meals and cooking, remembering appointments, where car is parked, the route to home
Long-term memory: own biography, names and faces of family members
Lose the ability to perform familiar tasks, plan activities, and draw simple conclusions from facts
Communication, language, comprehension
Inability to understand instructions, follow the logic of moderately complex sentences. Later: difficulty understanding own sentences, difficulty forming thoughts into words
Do not recognize consequences of own actions, unable to evaluate appropriateness of behavior, level of risk. Behavior may become rude, overly friendly, aggressive. Personal hygiene may be ignored.
To time (date, time), place, person
Decreased attention, increased restlessness
Quickly begin activity, quickly loose interest/wander (safety problems)
Behavioral changes, psychosis
Loose interest in once-pleasurable activities, become passive, depressed (20-30%), anxious (20%). Delusions, suspicion, paranoia, hallucinations. Sleep disturbances: insomnia, sleep interruptions. Disinhibition, impulsivity, agitation, balance problems, tremor, troubles eating and swallowing, wondering and restlessness.Slide20
Memory: Introduction Zara A. Melikyan - Description
some slides are courtesy of Dr GPSutton February 5 2015 Lecture Plan Memory definition subtypes and processes Clinical examples of memory loss patients HM amp CW What is memory loss ID: 684693 Download Presentation
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