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The Revenue Cycle: Sales to Cash Collections

Chapter 12. 12-. 1. Learning Objectives. Describe the basic business activities and related information processing operations performed in the revenue cycle.. Discuss the key decisions that need to be made in the revenue cycle, and identify the information needed to make those decisions..

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The Revenue Cycle: Sales to Cash Collections






Presentation on theme: "The Revenue Cycle: Sales to Cash Collections"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

The Revenue Cycle: Sales to Cash Collections

Chapter 12

12-

1

Slide2

Learning Objectives

Describe the basic business activities and related information processing operations performed in the revenue cycle.

Discuss the key decisions that need to be made in the revenue cycle, and identify the information needed to make those decisions.

Identify major threats in the revenue cycle, and evaluate the adequacy of various control procedures for dealing with those threats.

12-

2

Slide3

INTRODUCTION

The revenue cycle is a recurring set of business activities and related information processing operations associated with:

Providing goods and services to customers

Collecting their cash payments

The primary external exchange of information is with customers.

Slide4

Basic Revenue Cycle Activities

1. Sales order entry

2. Shipping

3. Billing

4. Cash Collections12-

4

Slide5

1. Sales Order Entry Processing Steps

Performed by Sales Department (reports to VP of Marketing)

1.1 Take the customer order

1.2 Approve customer credit

1.3 Check inventory availability1.4 Respond to customer inquiries

12-

5

Slide6

1.1

Take

Order

Customer

Shipping

1.2

Approve

Credit

1.3

Check

Inv.

Avail.

Billing

Ware-

house

Purchas-

ing

1.4

Resp. to

Cust. Inq.

Customer

Sales Order

Customer

Inventory

Orders

Rejected Orders

Acknowledgment

Orders

Approved

Orders

Back Orders

Picking

List

Sales

Order

Sales

Order

Inquiries

Response

DFD for

Sales Order Entry

Slide7

1.1 Take the customer order

Source document: sales order

The sales order (paper or electronic) indicates:

Item numbers ordered

Quantities

Prices

Salesperson

Etc.

Slide8

1.1 Take the customer order

How IT can improve efficiency and effectiveness:

Have customers enter data themselves (OCR, webpages, etc.)

Orders entered online can be routed directly to the warehouse for picking and shipping.

Sales history can be used to customize solicitations.

Choiceboards

can be used to customize orders.

Electronic data interchange (EDI) can be used to link a company directly with its customers to receive orders or even manage the customer’s inventory.

Email and instant messaging are used to notify sales staff of price changes and promotions.

Slide9

1.2 Approve customer credit

Credit sales should be approved before the order is processed any further.

There are two types of credit authorization:

General authorization

Specific authorization

How can IT improve the credit check process?

Automatic checking of credit limits and balances

Emails or IMs to the credit manager for accounts needing specific authorization

Slide10

When the order has been received and the customer’s credit approved, the next step is to ensure there is sufficient inventory to fill the order and advise the customer of the delivery date.

The sales order clerk can usually reference a screen displaying:

Quantity on hand

Quantity already committed to others

Quantity on order

1.3 Check inventory availability

Slide11

If there are enough units to fill the order:

Complete the sales order

Update the

quantity available

field in the inventory fileNotify the following departments of the sale:Inventory (picking ticket)

Billing

Shipping

Send an acknowledgment to the customer

1.3 Check inventory availability

Slide12

If there’s not enough to fill the order, initiate a back order.

For manufacturing companies, notify the production department that more should be manufactured.

For retail companies, notify purchasing that more should be purchased.

1.3 Check inventory availability

Slide13

Another step in the sales order entry process is responding to customer inquiries:

May occur before or after the order is placed

The quality of this customer service can be critical to company success

Transaction processing technology can be used to improve customer relationships:

POS systems can link to the customer master file

IT should be used to automate responses to routine customer requests.

The effectiveness of a website depends on its design

1.4 Respond to customer inquiries

Slide14

Many companies use Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems to support this process:

Organizes customer data to facilitate efficient and personalized service

Provides data about customer needs and business practices so they can be contacted proactively about the need to reorder

1.4 Respond to customer inquiries

Slide15

Sales Order Entry Processing

Threats

Controls

Incomplete/inaccurate orders

Invalid orders

Uncollectible accounts

Stockouts

and excess inventory

Loss of customers

1 a. Data entry edit controls

b. Restrict access to master data

2 Signature to authorize sale

3 a. Credit limits

b. Specific authorization

c. Aging accounts receivable4 a. Perpetual inventory system

b. RFID or bar code technology c. Training

d. Physical inventory counts e. Sales forecasts and activity reports5 CRM systems, self-help Web sites, etc. 12-15

Slide16

SHIPPING

The second basic activity in the revenue cycle is filling customer orders and shipping the desired merchandise.

The process consists of two steps

Picking and packing the order

Shipping the order

The warehouse department typically picks the order

The shipping departments packs and ships the order

Both functions include custody of inventory and ultimately report to the VP of Manufacturing.

Slide17

2.1

Pick &

Pack

Sales Order

2.2

Ship

Goods

Sales

Order

Entry

Shipping

Carrier

Inventory

Shipments

Billing &

Accts.

Rec.

Picking List

Goods &

Packing

List

Goods,

Packing Slip,

& Bill of Lading

Bill of

Lading &

Packing Slip

Sales

Order

Slide18

2.1 Pick & pack the order

Source documents: picking ticket

A picking ticket is printed by sales order entry and triggers the pick-and-pack process

The picking ticket identifies:

Which products to pick

What quantity

Warehouse workers record the quantities picked on the picking ticket, which may be a paper or electronic document.

The picked inventory is then transferred to the shipping department.

Slide19

Technology can speed the movement of inventory and improve the accuracy of perpetual inventory records:

Bar code scanners

Conveyer belts

Wireless technology so workers can receive instructions without returning to dispatch

Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags:

Eliminate the need to align goods with scanner

Allow inventory to be tracked as it moves through warehouse

Can store up to 128 bytes of data

2.1 Pick & pack the order

Slide20

The shipping department compares the following quantities:

Physical count of inventory

Quantities indicated on picking ticket

Quantities on sales order

Discrepancies can arise if:

Items weren’t stored in the location indicated

Perpetual inventory records were inaccurate

If there are discrepancies, a back order is initiated.

2.2 Ship goods

Slide21

Source documents: Packing slip, Bill of lading

The clerk then records :

The sales order number

The item numbers ordered

The quantities shipped

This information is used to:

Update the quantity-on-hand field in the inventory master file

Produce a packing slip

Produce multiple copies of the bill of lading

2.2 Ship goods

Slide22

The shipment is accompanied by:

The packing slip

A copy of the bill of lading

The freight bill

(Sometimes bill of lading doubles as freight bill)What happens to other copies of the bill of lading?

One is kept in shipping to track and confirm delivery

One is sent to billing to trigger an invoice

One is retained by the freight carrier

2.2 Ship goods

Slide23

Shipping Process

Threats

Controls

Picking wrong item or quantity to ship

Theft

Shipping errors (delay or failure to ship, wrong quantities, wrong items, wrong addresses, etc.)

1 a. Bar code technology &RFID

b. Reconcile picking list to sales order

2 a. Restrict physical access to inventory

b. Document inventory transfers

c. RFID and bar code technology

d. Physical counts of inventory

3 a. Reconcile shipping documents to sales

orders, picking lists, and packing slips

b. Use RFID system to identify delays

c. Data entry via bar-codes & RFID

d. Data entry edit controls e. Configuration of ERP system 12-23

Slide24

BILLING

The third revenue cycle activity is billing customers.

This activity involves two tasks:

Invoicing/billing

Updating accounts receivable

Slide25

3.1

Billing

Customer

3.2

Maintain

Accts.

Rec.

Sales

Order

Entry

Billing and

Accounts

Receivable

Customer

Sales

General

Ledger &

Rept. Sys.

Shipping

Mailroom

Sales Order

Sales

Packing Slip &

Bill of Lading

Invoice

Monthly Statements

Remittance

List

Slide26

3.1 Billing

Source document: sales invoice

Accurate and timely billing is crucial.

Billing is an information processing activity that repackages and summarizes information from the sales order entry and shipping activities

Requires information from:

Shipping Department

on items and quantities shipped

Sales

on prices and other sales terms (discounts,

etc

)

Slide27

The basic document created is the sales invoice. The invoice notifies the customer of:

The amount to be paid

Where to send payment

Invoices may be sent/received:

In paper formBy EDI

Common for larger companies

Faster and cheaper than snail mail

3.1 Billing

Slide28

When buyer and seller have accurate online systems:

Invoicing process may be skipped

Seller sends an email when goods are shipped

Buyer sends acknowledgment when goods are received

Buyer automatically remits payments within a specified number of days after receiving the goods

Can produce substantial cost savings

3.1 Billing

Slide29

Source document: credit memo and monthly statements

The accounts receivable function reports to the controller

This function performs two basic tasks

Debits customer accounts for the amount the customer is invoiced

Credits customer accounts for the amount of customer payments

Two basic ways to maintain accounts receivable:

Open-invoice method

Balance forward method

3.2 Update accounts receivable

Slide30

OPEN-INVOICE METHOD:

Customers pay according to each invoice

Two copies of the invoice are typically sent to the customer

Customer is asked to return one copy with payment

This copy is a turnaround document called a

remittance advice

Advantages of open-invoice method

Conducive to offering early-payment discounts

Results in more uniform flow of cash collections

Disadvantages of open-invoice method

More complex to maintain

3.2 Update accounts receivable

Slide31

BALANCE FORWARD METHOD:

Customers pay according to amount on their monthly statement, rather than by invoice

Monthly statement lists transactions since the last statement and lists the current balance

The tear-off portion includes pre-printed information with customer name, account number, and balance

Customers are asked to return the stub, which serves as the remittance advice

Remittances are applied against the total balance rather than against a specific invoice

3.2 Update accounts receivable

Slide32

Cycle billing is commonly used with the balance-forward method

Monthly statements are prepared for subsets of customers at different times.

EXAMPLE: Bill customers according to the following schedule:

1

st week of month—Last names beginning with A-F

2

nd

week of month—Last names beginning with G-M

3

rd

week of month—Last names beginning with N-S

4

th

week of month—Last names beginning with T-Z

3.2 Update accounts receivable

Slide33

Image processing can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of managing customer accounts.

Digital images of customer remittances and accounts are stored electronically

Advantages:

Fast, easy retrieval

Copy of document can be instantly transmitted to customer or others

Multiple people can view document at once

Drastically reduces document storage space

3.2 Update accounts receivable

Slide34

EXCEPTION PROCEDURES: ACCOUNT ADJUSTMENTS AND WRITE-OFFS:

Adjustments to customer accounts may need to be made for:

Returns

Allowances for damaged goods

Write-offs as uncollectibleThese adjustments are handled by the credit manager

3.2 Update accounts receivable

Slide35

If there’s a return, the credit manager:

Receives confirmation from the receiving dock that the goods were actually returned to inventory

Then issues a credit memo which authorizes the crediting of the customer’s account

If goods are slightly damaged, the customer may agree to keep them for a price reduction

Credit manager issues a credit memo to reflect that reduction

3.2 Update accounts receivable

Slide36

Distribution of credit memos:

One copy to accounts receivable to adjust the customer account

One copy to the customer

If repeated attempts to collect payment fail, the credit manager may issue a credit memo to write off an account:

A copy will not be sent to the customer

3.2 Update accounts receivable

Slide37

Billing Process

Threats

Controls

Failure to bill customer

Billing errors

Posting errors in accounts receivable

Inaccurate or invalid credit memos

1 a. Separate shipping and billing functions

b. Reconcile invoices with sales orders,

picking tickets and shipping documents

2 a. Automatically enter price data

b. Restrict access to master price data

c. Data entry edit controls

d. Reconcile shipping docs and sales order

3 a. Data entry controls

b. Reconcile batch totals

c. Mail monthly statements d. Reconcile subsidiary accounts receivable4 a. Segregation of authorization and recording function for credit memos b. Block credit memos without documentation of returned goods or specific authorization12-37

Slide38

CASH COLLECTIONS

The final activity in the revenue cycle is collecting cash from customers

The cashier, who reports to the treasurer, handles customer remittances and deposits them in the bank

Because cash and checks are highly vulnerable, controls should be in place to discourage theft

Accounts receivable personnel should not have access to cash (including checks)

Slide39

Possible approaches to collecting cash:

Turnaround documents forwarded to accounts receivable

Lockbox arrangements

Electronic lockboxes

Electronic funds transfer (EFT)Financial electronic data interchange (FEDI)

Accept credit cards or procurement cards from customers

CASH COLLECTIONS

Slide40

Cash Collection Process

Threats

Control

Theft of cash

Cashflow

problems

1 a. Separation of cash handling function from accounts receivable and credit functions and bank reconciliation

b. Use of EFT, FEDI, and lockboxes

c. Use a UPIC to receive EFT and FEDI payments

d. Upon opening mail, create list of payments

e. Prompt, restrictive endorsement of customer checks

f. Having two people open all mail likely to contain

customer payments

g. Use of cash registers

h. Daily deposit of all cash receipts

2a. Lockbox arrangements, EFT, or credit cards

b. Discounts for prompt payment by customers c. Cash flow budgets12-40