Presentations text content in MICROFINANCE REGULATION:
MICROFINANCE REGULATION:IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN
PRESENTED BY: MRS. SHERRY KATWAROO-RAGBIR
4th Biennial International Business, Banking & Finance Conference JUNE 22
– JUNE 24
In this paper global approaches to microfinance regulation were critically studied in order to formulate policy recommendations for the introduction of microfinance regulation in the Caribbean region.
The paper seeks to emphasize the need for an appropriate regulatory framework:
to support stable expansion of the regional industry to protect the vulnerable client base to deliver on expected social and economic objectives
Features of Microfinance (Basel Committee 2010).
Provision of financial services
Services provided include loans, savings, money transfers and microinsuranceIn limited amounts
Target is low-income persons and small businesses
Clients generally shunned from the commercial banking sector because of their unfortunate economic status
What is microfinanceSlide4
Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP)2003 - guidelines on regulation and supervision of microfinance:
– binding rules governing the conduct of legal entities and individuals, whether they are adopted by a legislative body (laws) or an executive body (regulations).
What is microfinance regulation?Slide5
Prudential financial regulation serves the following macroeconomic goals (Wright 2000)
Ensuring the solvency and financial soundness of all financial institutions.
Providing depositors protection against excessive risks that may arise from failure, fraud or opportunistic behaviour on the part of the financial institution.
Promoting efficient performance of financial intermediaries and markets.
Prudential vs. Non-prudential Regulation for the CaribbeanSlide6
Non-prudential regulation & supervision - span a wide spectrum and include:
reporting and disclosure requirements; ‘fit and proper’ requirements for directors and officers; restrictions on interest or deposit rates, setting up of credit information services and preventing fraud and financial crimes. (Microfinance Gateway 2011).
Applies not only to licensed financial institutions but also to registered financial service providers.
Prudential vs. Non-prudential regulation for the CaribbeanSlide7
Wright (2000) discussed the following options for microfinance regulation
No External Regulation
Self-RegulationBlended approach: a mix of self-regulation and part supervision by a third partyRegulation through the existing legal and regulatory framework:
Sol - BoliviaRegulation through MFI-specific regulation: Grameen Bank - Bangladesh
Approaches to RegulationSlide8
Microfinance is fundamentally different from traditional banking and regulation must be built on an understanding of these.
Self Regulation is ineffective - does little more than improve the financial reporting and internal controls in the organization
Protection of the Poor: in the pursuit of profit-maximization, actions by MFIs and their investors can disadvantage clients. e.g. Compartamos in Mexico, investors earned a return of roughly 100 percent a year compounded over eight years as Compartamos charges interest rates that exceed 100 percent per year on loans to the poor.
Increased transparency is required to provide greater client protection, in areas such as interest rate reporting.
Number of Programs Reporting
Total Number of Clients Reached
Number of Poorest Clients Reported
12/31/001,567 institutions30,681,10719,327,45112/31/012,186 institutions54,932,23526,878,33212/31/022,572 institutions67,606,08041,594,77812/31/032,931 institutions80,868,34354,785,43312/31/043,164 institutions92,270,28966,614,87112/31/053,133 institutions113,261,39081,949,03612/31/063,316 institutions 133,030,91392,922,57412/31/073,552 institutions154,825,825106,584,679
Table I: Growth in Demand and Supply of Microfinance Services from 1997 to 2007
MFIs by Institution Type
Percentage Composition of MFIs by Institution type as at Dec 31
2000 and 2009
To enable sustained growth many MFIs are opting to transform from a non-profit status to registered and regulated financial institutions, with start-up MFIs generally opting for regulated status.Slide11
Benefits of the licensed NBFI over the NGO:
Access to additional sources of funds - NGOs’ sources of funds are limited to donations, income from lending and subsidized loans. Regulated MFIs can access commercial sources of funds for both equity and debt.Wider range of financial services – including but not limited to savings mobilization, this gives the MFI access to a stable source of local resources, and enables expanded outreach. Prudential regulation to protect depositors and guard against moral hazard is critical.
Self Sustainability and Profitability
Commercial Funding %
Increase in commercial borrowing from 2003 to 2005
US$1 billionPortion of Increase to Regulated MFIs> 50%Slide12
Wenner and Chalmers (2001)
Caribbean microfinance suffers from substandard financial performance and lacks outreach into the microenterprise sector when compared to Asia and Latin America.
To date most programs are financially unsustainable and remain dependant on government or donor-supported funding.
The State of Caribbean MicrofinanceSlide13
The Economist Intelligence Unit (2009) conducted a study which ranked fifty-five countries worldwide based on each country’s regulatory, investment and institutional environment for microfinance.
The only two Caribbean countries in the study were Jamaica and Trinidad.
Both countries ranked in the top twenty for investment climate
Under institutional development Trinidad ranked forty with a score of 16.7 out of 100, and Jamaica ranked fifty-second with a score of 8.3.
Under the regulatory framework dimension, Jamaica scored 25 out of 100 and ranked fifty and Trinidad came in last at fifty-five with a score of 12.5.
The State of Caribbean MicrofinanceSlide14
Players in the industry are:
specialized financial institutions, state owned and funded companies, credit unions and donor supported NGOs.
Primary focus of Caribbean MFIs is the provision of funding to small entrepreneurs and microenterprises (Lashley
and Lord 2002)
Mainly the NGO type institutions have focussed directly on reaching those disenfranchised and excluded from participation in the traditional banking sector, explaining the continued importance of this business type in regional and global microfinancing.
The State of Caribbean MicrofinanceSlide15
Constraints to the Growth of the Microfinance Sector in the Caribbean:
and Chalmers (2001) in comparing Caribbean and Latin American MFIs associate a number of limiting factors for Caribbean microfinance.…. the smaller and more concentrated financial markets, the greater degree of macroeconomic stability, lower rates of poverty and superior standard of living, the prevalence of inappropriate lending technologies...
Poor re-payment culture of Caribbean borrowers.
Lashley and Lord (2002) commented that clients generally take loans as handouts never to be re-paid.
Caribbean MFIs operate in an environment of fixed interest rates. These rates are set too low to allow MFIs to profitably cover their high operating costs or to take advantage of their clients’ willingness to pay higher than market rates.
The State of Caribbean MicrofinanceSlide16
Divergence between the goals of government and private MFIs leading to market inefficiencies:
Many government initiatives designed to ease the conditions of the poor create a dependency syndrome that can suppress entrepreneurial spirit among those for whom microfinance is available.
State owned and funded MFIs use state funds to compete with well-established private MFIs that fund their operations from commercial sources.
(2005) points out that these state funded programs lend at lower interest rates and are not as aggressive in ensuring portfolio quality or enforcing debt recovery.
The State of Caribbean MicrofinanceSlide17
Where to Start? Gain a comprehensive understanding of the present state of the microfinance industry.
Role of Government:
Clearly articulate the role of microfinance in the financial sector and in social development. These goals should be complimentary
Sobhan (2002) – recommends a government appointed “Microfinance Commission
” to create a supportive regulatory environment for microfinance
Consist of wide representation of knowledgeable members and be representative
of donors, government, NGOs, academia and the private sector
The Way forward for Regulating Caribbean MicrofinanceSlide18
A phased approach focussing on critical priority areas:Clear distinctions must be drawn between the various types of MFIs. A
where different classes of institutions are subject to differing levels of regulation can be applied.Regulations should be updated for the Non Bank Financial Institutions NBFIs. Liquidity requirements
should be tightened if MFIs are to intermediate deposits.
Reserve requirements should however be less onerous than the traditional banks.
Increased transparency on interest rates charged should replace fixed interest rates.
Standardize the methods to calculate and communicate interest rate charges to borrowers and the public (Counts and
The Way forward for Regulating Caribbean MicrofinanceSlide19
Christen et al. (2003) warn that regulation that is not enforced can be worst than no regulation at all, build adequate supervisory capability.
Resist the temptation to copy what other nations have done. Over-regulation must be guarded against as this can shut down rather than promote development in the sector.
Realism must be maintained at all times.
The Way forward for Regulating Caribbean MicrofinanceSlide20
Regulation alone will not lead to sustainable growth in the microfinance sector. It must be enacted together with other enabling policies such as institutional rationalization and development.