mponent of European Helicopter Safety Team Advantages of Simulators FSTDs inHelicopter Flight Training HE FOR HELICOPTER PILOTS AND INSTRUCTORS TRAINING LEAFLET    Advantages of Simulators FSTDs in H
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mponent of European Helicopter Safety Team Advantages of Simulators FSTDs inHelicopter Flight Training HE FOR HELICOPTER PILOTS AND INSTRUCTORS TRAINING LEAFLET Advantages of Simulators FSTDs in H

TYPES OF FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICES57375FSTDs 2 EASA TRAINING CREDITS 3 BENEFITS OF FSTD USE 4 TYPES OF TRAINING 5 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON FSTD TRAINING 6 SUMMARY ACRONYMS BIBLIOGRAPHY brPage 4br INTRODUCTION Crew training and instructional aspe

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Presentation on theme: "mponent of European Helicopter Safety Team Advantages of Simulators FSTDs inHelicopter Flight Training HE FOR HELICOPTER PILOTS AND INSTRUCTORS TRAINING LEAFLET Advantages of Simulators FSTDs in H"— Presentation transcript:


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mponent of European Helicopter Safety Team Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) inHelicopter Flight Training HE FOR HELICOPTER PILOTS AND INSTRUCTORS TRAINING LEAFLET
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2 >> Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training
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CONTENT INTRODUCTION 1. TYPES OF FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICES(FSTDs) 2. EASA TRAINING CREDITS 3. BENEFITS OF FSTD USE 4. TYPES OF TRAINING 5. ADDITIONAL NOTES ON FSTD TRAINING 6. SUMMARY ACRONYMS, BIBLIOGRAPHY
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INTRODUCTION Crew training and instructional aspects have been

identied in the report by the European Helicopter Safety Team EHEST Analysis of 2000-2005 Accidents as one of the top categories for Intervention Recommendations (recommended means to x thesafety issues identied in the analysis). Flight Simulator Training Devices (FSTDs) are without doubt great tools to signicantly improve the training benets and efficiencies with the various capabilities and specic benets they bring such as: ɡ@4 ɡͶ4‡040 ‡‡K %‘4 %‘†40 ‘ %~

helicopters ɡ4%~ †‡‘4ʤ4 ‡‡K %~ ɡ ]‘ ~~ ~~ 4]4 %‘‡0‘‡ ɡŋ‘K44 ‡0 40K‘K%~ ~4‡‡K ɡĒK] ~~ 4~0 ‘4‡ ɡ‘ɣ4B4%4‡4 ɡ‡ʤ‘‡†4‡~~ɣ@4‡0~ The purpose of this leaet is to highlight the various helicopter ight simulation training devices available and to also review the additional training and safety benets related to recent technological and

regulatory developments. ߜ ŋ Ĉ ߡ4‡0 4 ] 4†‡4 shall make full use of FSTDs where available. Note that the time reference for all regulatory 4@44‡%4 †4~ ‡0 ~4 40 ‡ ] Ī4G4 is May 2013. 4 >> Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training
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ś]4 0B44‡ Ρ4 ‘@ ]4~%‘4 GK] †~‘‡ training devices are dened in the EASA CS FSTD (H) (Certication Specication for Flight Simulation Training Device). The denitions

encompassed inthis specication include the technical minimumrequirements/standards for each level of qualication (ortype) and the acceptable means of compliance to demonstrate compliance with thedened standards. Note: For the same type name, the denition ‡%~040 ‡ ]4 ߜ 4K~‘‡ † 0B4 @‘† that included in the FAA regulation, because currently these two regulation standards are not fully harmonised. The following FSTD qualication levels are dened in the CS FSTD (H):

˞ɕ ʂĈ~K] ‡0 ijK‘‡~ ŋ‘%404 Trainer) 2. FTD 1, 2, 3 (Flight Training Device) 3. FFS A, B, C, D(Full Flight Simulator) Note: The training conducted must be adapted to the FSTD used in order to reduce the chances of possible negative training issues. 1.1 FNPT Flight and Navigation Procedures Trainer. This is the rst qualication level dened in the EASA regulation. The main technical features and training capabilities are presented in Figure1. 1. TYPES OF FLIGHT SIMULATION

TRAININGDEVICES(FSTDs) Figure 1 : FNPT Main Features Main Training Value Ab-Initio  ŋ‘%404 ś‡‡K Instrument Training Navigation Safety Exercises Multi-Crew Cooperation (MCC) with specic features Training Credits (EASA)  Ţ ‘  ‡‘ GK] ]‘ ʂ ‡4K40 Checking Operator Recurrent (limited) MCC (if MCC qualied) Main Technical Features (Minimal Qualication Requirements) Helicopter Models: Generic Visual System: Yes Field of View upto: 150(horizontal) x60

(vertical) Vibration System: No Motion System: No Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training >> 5
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ś] K4‡4% Ω4† 4 %‘ 4B4%4 ‘~‘‡ ‡0 0B44‡ ‡‡K ~~ † 4 used for ab initio, Multi Crew Cooperation (MCC) and procedural navigation training towards the instrument rating. This may be also avery efficient tool to demonstrate safety procedures and good practises such as the ones highlighted in the HE1 ś‡‡K Ī4G4 . The qualication level

ranges from I(without visual and motion system) to II and III (with visual reference system). ‘%†4‡ 4@ ś‡‡K Ī4G4 Ē ɣ @4 ‘‡04‘‡ IJ4]‘0 ‘ Ė†‘4 Ē4~%‘4 ŋ~‘ɴ ~4 1.2 FTD Flight Training Device Ė‡ 00‘‡ ‘ ]4 04‡‘‡ ] Ĉś @44 helicopter type specic simulation models, which bring the capability to perform type rating training. This type of FSTD has alimited

checking/testing capability due to the fact that it does not include amotion system or avibration system. The main technical features and training capabilities are presented in Figure 2. There are three levels of FTDqualication (1, 2, and 3); however, there are limited training credits available for level 1 FTDs. Themain application of the FTD (level 2 and 3) is type rating training. An FTD 2/3 can also be used for Ė‡†4‡ Ŏ‡K 4~0‘‡ ʂŋ Ĉ Ē Figure 2 : FTD Main Features Main

Training Value Type Rating Training ŋ‘%404 Recurrent Training Ab-Initio Safety Exercises Multi-Crew Cooperation (MCC) Depending on Type of Helicopter simulated Training Credits (EASA)  Ţ ‘ Ρ4 ‡K ight hours  Ţ ‘  ‡‘ ight hours Checking MCC (if MCC qualied) Main Technical Features (Minimal Qualication Requirements) Helicopter Models: Type Specic Visual System: Yes Field of View upto: 150(horizontal) x60 (vertical) Vibration System: No Motion System: No 6 >> Advantages

of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training
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Note: Although FTD 3 features higher quality ight model delity, it does not bring any additional training credits as compared with FTD2. 1.3 FFS Full Flight Simulator This is the highest level of technical complexity and training capability in the EASA and FAA regulations. In addition to the FTD denition, the FFS provides avibration and cabin motion capability. The qualication levels range from AtoD, although some lower levels are rarely used (level Ain

particular). The higher qualication levels bring avery comprehensive training capability tochecking and testing. Ļŋ Ļ4‘ ŋ‘%4‡% ]4%y ŋ @‘ ŋ‘%4‡% ]4%y Ī @‘ Ī‡4 ]4%y Figure 3 : FFS Main Features Main Training Value Type Rating Training Recurrent Training Navigation Safety Exercises Multi-Crew Cooperation (MCC) Depending on Type of Helicopter simulated Training Credits (EASA)  Ţ ‘ Ρ4 ‡K ight hours  Ţ ‘  ‡‘ ight

hours Checking Ļŋʈŋ MCC (if MCC qualied) (No for type Rating Skill check) Main Technical Features (Minimal Qualication Requirements) Helicopter Models: Type Specic Visual System: Yes Field of View upto: 180(horizontal) x60 (vertical) Vibration System: Yes Motion System: Yes Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training >> 7
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2.1 Denition of Training Credits The value of the training performed using FSTDs is recognised within the EASA regulation (and more widely, internationally) by

the ability to replace or complement actual ight training hours by instruction hours on ight training devices. The amount of training hours that may be performed on the FSTD towards the minimum hours required for the issue of alicence, rating or certicate is y‡‘‡  ɶś‡‡K 40 The total Training Credit allowed is dependent upon the type of FSTD and its qualication level. Asummary of these training credits is included in the Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance IJ4~ ‘

ŋɣĈ ‘@ ]4 ĖŎŎ 4K~‘‡ Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance Material to Commission Regulation (EU) No1178/2011 of 3 November 2011 laying down technical requirements and administrative procedures related to civil aviation aircrew pursuant to Regulation (EC) No216/2008 of the ‘4‡ ŋ~†4‡ ‡0 ‘@ ]4 ‘‡%~ ɡIJ ĈĪɕˤ˟ˢʂ Ŏ44†4‡ @‘ ]4 4 ‘@ class and typeratings ɡ ‘

ߡ4‡0 ߡ4‡0 Ĉ @‘ dual instruction in helicopter ying training courses. The tables of training credits included in the AMC ‡0 ‘ ŋɣĈ 4 4‘0%40 ‡ 4%‘‡  an example. Ű]44 ‘40 Ĉijŋś %‡ ~‘ 4 40 @‘ %]4%y‡K ‡ ]4 y~~ 4 ߡ4‡0  for IF items and also Appendix 7 Instrument Rating Section 6 a. Single engine failure. Ė ‘~4 ] ‡ %‘~0 ~‘ 4 40 @‘ limited training and checking in an AOCs

recurrent training and checking programme e.g TCAS event training. The term FSTD is used throughout in ŋĻ ]44 ‘4‡‡K ]4 0‘‘ ‘ †~04 of devices. 2. EASA TRAINING CREDITS
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2.2 FSTD Training Credits Note: The applicable training credit must be obtained directly from the current version of the reference regulation Part-FCL. Training Requirements FSTD Training Credits Dual Solo SPIC Total FS C,D FTD 2,3 FTD FNPT II, III (MCC) FNPT Ė‡4K40 Visual, including ME T/R training 75h 15h ˡ˝] 130h 30h 25h

20h Basic Instrument 10h 10h 20h 20h 20h 10h Instrument Rating Training ˡ˝] ˡ˝] MCC 15h 15h 15h 15h 15h Total ˞ˡ˝] 55h 195h 65h 60h 55h 10h Ė‡4K40 Visual, including ME T/R training 75h 15h ˡ˝] 130h 30h 25h 20h Basic Instrument 10h 10h 5h 5h 5h 5h MCC / VFR 10h 10h 10h 10h 10h Total 95h 55h 150h ˡˢ] ˡ˝] 35h 5h Ė‡4K40 Visual, including ME T/R training 75h 15h ˡ˝] 130h 30h 25h 20h Basic Instrument 10h 10h 20h 20h 20h 5h Instrument Rating Training ˡ˝] ˡ˝] Total 125h 55h

180h 50h ˡˢ] ˡ˝] 5h Ė‡4K40 Visual 75h 15h 35h 125h 30h 25h 20h Basic Instrument 10h 10h 5h 5h 5h 5h Total 85h 50h 135h 35h 30h 25h 5h IJ‘0~ Visual 20h 20h 5h 5h 5h Basic Instrument 10h 10h 5h 5h 5h 5h Total 30h 30h 10h 10h 10h 5h Visual / Basic Instrument 35h 10h ˡˢ] 5h 5h 5h 5h 5h Total 35h 10h ˡˢ] 5h 5h 5h 5h 5h I/R(H) Modular Single Engine 50h 50h 35h 35h 35h 20h Multi Engine 55h 55h ˡ˝] ˡ˝] ˡ˝] 20h MCC(H) Modular MCC / VFR 15h 15h 15h 15h 15h MCC (VFR+IR) 20h 20h 20h 20h 20h MCC / IR for MCC

Holder 5h 5h 5h 5h 5h ‘%4 ߜ ŋɣĈ ‘ ߡ4‡0 4‡0 Ĉ 44 4%‘‡ @‘ Ĉś ‡‡K %40 @‘ Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training >> 9
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Type Rating Initial issue Minimum Flight Instruction Excluding Skill Test In Helicopter Helicopter and FSTD Associated Training Credits Helicopter Type Total Helicopter FS C,D FTD 2/3 SEP (H) 5h 6h 2h ˡ] OR 6h ˡ] 2h SET (H) under 3175 kg MTOM 5h 6h 2h ˡ] OR 6h ˡ] 2h SET (H) at or over 3175 kg MTOM 8h 10h 2h 8h

OR 10h ˡ] 6h SPH MET (H) CS and FAR 27 and 29 8h 10h 2h 8h OR 10h ˡ] 6h MPH 10h 12h 2h 10h OR 12h ˡ] 8h Additional Types Minimum Flight Instruction Excluding Skill Test In Helicopter Helicopter and FSTD Associated Training Credits Helicopter Types Total Helicopter FS C,D FTD 2/3 SEP(H) toSEP(H) within AMC1 FCL.740.H(a)(3) 2h 3h 1h 2h OR ˡ] 1h 3h SEP(H) toSEP(H) not included inAMC1 FCL.740.H (a)(3) 5h 6h 1h 5h OR 7h 2h 5h SET(H) toSET(H) 2h 3h 1h 2h OR ˡ] 1h 3h MET(H) toMET(H) 3h ˡ] 1h 3h OR 5h 2h 3h 10 >>

Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training
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(e) Holders of an IR(H) wishing to extend the IR(H) to further types should have additionally 2 hours ight training on type by sole reference to instruments according to IFR which may be conducted in an FFS C/D or FTD 2/3. Holders ofanSE IR(H) wishing to extend the IR privileges to an ME IR(H) for the rst time should complete atleast 5 hours training. ‡K~4 ‡K‡4 ŋ‘‡ SET : Single Engine Turbine ‡K~4 ŋ~‘ Ē4~%‘4

MET : Multi Engine Turbine IJ~ɣŋ~‘ Ē4~%‘4 These matrices have to be considered as the bare minimum, And additional training could be necessary depending on: ɡ‘†~4Ͷ ‘@ ]4 %J Ρ4 ]‡0~‡K characteristics, level of technology ɡ4K‘ ‘@ ]4~%‘4 ʂ ‘ ]4~%‘4 †~ɣ4‡K‡4 ‡4 ‡0 †~ ŋ~‘ ]4~%‘4 ɡŋ4‘ 4͡44‡%4 ‘@ ]4 ~%‡ ɡĻ4‘‡~ ~‘‡ ‘0

4‘ recommend, in general, additional training for most Helicopter Type ratings. An FTD can also be used for checking. Examples 4Ĉ ĒĖ‡†4‡ Ŏ‡K 4~0‘‡ ‡ ‡ Ĉś ĈĪ IJ Ŏ4‡4~ ‡0 Ŏ4~0‘‡ An FSTD can be used for command course and 4%4‡ ‡‡K ‡04 %‘‡0‘‡ ś] where an FSTD becomes an invaluable tool by combing real time events with complex abnormal and emergency conditions. As new technology marches

on so does the need for the training requirement to keep pace with ever complex ight displays and associated systems. In Helicopter Helicopter and FSTD Associated Training Credits Helicopter Types Total Helicopter FS C,D FTD 2/3 MPH to MPH 5h 6h 1h 5h OR 7h 2h 5h Extend privileges on the same type rating from SPH to MPH, or from MPH to SPH 2h 3h 1h 2h ‘%4 ߜ ŋɣĈ ʂIJ ĈĪɕˤ˟ˢʂ Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training >> 11
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3.1 Safety The rst and obvious

benet of using an FSTD for training is the safety of the training operation itself. In the FSTD, the training environment is designed and controlled to avoid any real hazards for the trainees and instructors. In this safe environment atrainee can make mistakes and errors and learn from them, perform and repeat normal and abnormal procedures which may not be considered appropriate or safe when performed in ahelicopter. Ű]~ ]4 4‡4 ‘@ ‡‡K ‡ ‡ Ĉś 4 4~~ known, it is important that FSTD training does not replace, but

rather complements live ight training. Note: The use of FSTDs is increasingly encouraged by regulatory bodies. EASA Air Operations, AMC1 ORO.FC.230 (Recurrent training and checking) states: ɡŰ]44 ~4 Ĉś ~~4 ]‘~0 4 40 @‘ ]4 %JʈĈś ‡‡K ‘K††4 If the operator is able to demonstrate, on the basis of acompliance and risk assessment, ] ‡K ‡ %J @‘ ] ‡‡K ‘04 equivalent standards of training with safety levels similar to those achieved

using an FSTD, ]4 %J † 4 40 @‘ ] ‡‡K ‘ ]4 extent necessary. ɡś]4 4%4‡ ‡‡K ]‘~0 ‡%~04 ]4 following additional items, which should be completed in an FSTD: Settling with power and vortex ring; Ī‘ ‘@ ś~ ‘‘ B4%4‡4 ʂĪś ɡŢ4 ‘@ Ĉś @‘ 4%4‡ %]4%y‡K Training and checking provide an opportunity to practice abnormal/emergency procedures that rarely arise in normal operations and should be part of

astructured programme of recurrent training. This should be carried out in an FSTD whenever possible. 3. BENEFITS OF FSTD USE 12 >> Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training
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Ű]44 ‡ Ĉś ‘@ ‡ ~44~ ~~4 ~~ ~‘ (single and multi crew), irrespective of experience, should consider the benets of regular training sessions in order to maintain and further enhance their skills, knowledge and decision making. For those who do not have the means or access to Ĉś ]44 4

‡†4‘ ‘4 ‘J4 ight simulation packages available for use on 04y‘ %‘†4 Ű]~ ]4 4 ‘@ ]44 ~‘ enhances knowledge and ight safety, provided that appropriate behaviours are trained, they cannot replace all the benets of using an FSTD with aqualied instructor. 3.2 Emergency and Procedure Training. In addition to the normal operations and procedures that can be performed in helicopters, ]4 ‡‡K ‘K† ~‡K ‡ Ĉś ‘B4

opportunity to further develop more complex scenarios. For instance, atypical training program approved for the issue of atype rating utilising ahelicopter is not suitable for the training of certain emergency procedures on safety grounds whilst no such restrictions apply to FSTDs. In addition to the procedures outlined in the ight manual, the FSTD can be used to practice various ight regimes such  Īś ů‘4 Ŏ‡K ů 0‡†% ‘~~ɣ‘4 4% 3.3 Realism in FSTD training For safety reasons, when

performing an abnormal procedure or afailure in the helicopter, the malfunction is simulated either by pretending or 4‘0%‡K ]4 4B4% ‘@ ]4 †~@‡%‘‡ Ĉ‘ some critical scenarios trained on the helicopter %]  4‡K‡4 @~4 0‡K y4ɣ‘B ]4 4~4†4‡ ‘@ 4 ‘J4‡ †‡K 4%4 ‘@ @4 considerations (see HE 5 Risk management in Training). This denies the pilot the opportunity to experience failures as they would happen in real life thereby greatly diminishing the

diagnostic element of the training exercise. These %‘‡04‘‡ 0‘‡ɴ ~ ]4‡ 4@‘†‡K this training on an FSTD. This allows the pilot to experience more realistic training which includes asurprise element, the diagnostic process and the ability to learn from errors made in asafe 4‡ʤ‘‡†4‡ ś]4 4 ‘@ Ĉś ‘B4 @]4 benets to atraining organisation, for example: ɡij‘ 04~Ω 04 ‘ H% %‘‡K4‘‡

ɡĖ‡ GK] %‘‡0‘‡ ůIJ ʈĖIJ ‡0 ʈijK] icing condition, selection as required regardless of the prevailing conditions ɡŎ4%‘K‡40 ]K] 4K4 Ĉś 4%4~ ʂΡ%~~ ‘‡0 3.4 Economical Benets There are economic benets from using FSTDs in training. The savings made when compared with actual ight time can be quite signicant for complex helicopter types in amulti crew environment. Training in an FSTD is more cost 4B4%4

00‘‡~~ ]~ ‡‡K ‡ ‡ Ĉś the helicopter is available to be used for revenue generating ights. 3.5 Environmental Benets The environmental benets of using an FSTD in place of ahelicopter include lower emissions, alower carbon footprint, zero noise pollution andminimal impact on the local area particularly during night time. Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training >> 13
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4.1 Private Pilot Licence (PPL) ś]4 4 ‘@ Ĉś @‘

‡‡K ‡0 ~%4‡‡K ~~ ~†40 ʂĈ ɣ ͡44‡%4 requirements and crediting (a) Applicants for  ]~~ ]4 %‘†~440  ~4 ]‘ of ight instruction on helicopters, 5 of which † ]4 44‡ %‘†~440 ‡ ‡ ‘ Nevertheless, taking into account that safety analyses regularly point to the General Aviation (GA) sector as being acontributor to the high number of incidents and accidents, the use of appropriate FSTDs should be encouraged for performing specic training,

safety manoeuvres and demonstrations. In particular simple FSTDs can be used to perform manoeuvres and teach %4‡‘  04‡40 ‡ ]4 Ē Ī4G4 Ē ɣ Safety Considerations. ɡĈ~K] ‡ 4K040 ů~ ‡ʤ‘‡†4‡ ʂů ɡů‘4 Ŏ‡K 4 ɡĪ‘ ‘@ ś~ Ŏ‘‘ B4%4‡4 ʂĪś ɡ% ‡†% Ŏ‘~~‘4 ɡ‘‡~ 4‡4 ɡŢ4 ‘@ %]4%y~ ɡ‘%y

†‡K4†4‡ ɡ†4K4‡% ‘%404 ɡއ4͡4%40 4]4 4‡%‘‡4 4.2 Commercial Pilot Licence (CPL) / Airline Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL) andType Rating Training ś]4 4 ‘@ Ĉś @‘ ‡0 ‡~ Ρ4 rating training is well established. All aspects of ‡0 Ρ4 ‡K ‡‡K 4‡4 @‘† FSTD credits as illustrated in section 2.2 of this document. 4.3 Recurrent Training The use of an FSTD for recurrent training is awell established

practice among many helicopter operators. All recurrent training and checking such  Ļŋ ‡0 44‡ ŋ † 4 4@‘†40 ‘‡ ‡ Ĉś with all the benets illustrated in this leaet. FSTD are perfect for such training as command %‘4 ‡0 4%4‡ ‡‡K ‡04 Ī‡4 Ļ4‡40 Ĉ~K] ś‡‡K %‘‡0‘‡ ś] ]44 ‡ FSTD becomes an invaluable tool by combining real time events with complex abnormal and emergency conditions. As

new technology marches on so does the need for the training requirement to keep pace with ever complex ight displays and associated systems. Anumber of recent incidents and accidents have indicated that the recognition phase of acomplex emergency situation is still poorly handled by many crews, who then go on ‡0 ~ ‡ ‡%‘4% 0~~ ‘ ‘4 ]4 %J into an undesired state. 4.4 IR Training The benets of using an FSTD for initial IR training have been recognised by the regulators, as evidenced by the large training credits

available towards the rating issue. For initial training an ATO ‘~0 Ρ%~~ 4 ‡ ś]44 4 ~‘ ‡‡K credits available for other ratings where an element ‘@ ‡†4‡ G‡K ‡‘~40 ɕ4 ‡0 Ĉś 4 ~‘ 04~ 40 @‘ 4%4‡ training. The renewal and revalidation of the IR may be carried out in some of the higher level devices. For all these applications an FSTD is avery efficient tool due to its capacity to perform essential training independent of real weather

conditions without compromising safety. 4. TYPES OF TRAINING
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4.5 MCC Training The benets of using an FSTD for MCC training have been recognised by the regulators, as the entire course must be completed in an FSTD. MCCI 4‡4~ ‡0 4~0‘‡ %‡ 4 %40 ‘ ‡ ll/lll MCC or FTD 2/3 or FFS. 4.6 Role Specic Training Due to the potentially higher risks involved in %4‡ 4%% ‘~4 ɕ4 ‘Bɣ]‘4 ‡‘‘‡ Search and Rescue (SAR), Helicopter Emergency IJ40%~ 4%4

ʂĒ ‡0 ‘†4 4~ Ű‘y applications, the FSTD is an excellent tool that enhances safe training without exposure to the risks involved in these operations. This applies to both initial and recurrent crew training. In addition, many operators have expanded the use of simulators to include additional operation specic training requirements. These might not be recognised for licensing credits however, the additional training value can result in higher skilled crews and as aconsequence safer operations. Ė ‘~4 ] ‡ %‘~0

~‘ 4 40 for limited training and checking in an operator recurrent training and checking programme. ś]4 4† Ĉś 40 ]‘K]‘ ‡ ߜ ŋ Ops thereby opening the door to amultitude of devices. Clearly an NAA operations approval will be required, but if adevice is t for purpose for specic training roles like TCAS event training, etc., its use should be considered. Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training >> 15
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5.1 Motion Sickness Ĉś %y‡4 ~K]~

0B44‡ @‘† ]4 ~ %y‡4 ś]4 †‘ ‘J4‡ 4‘40 †‘† 4 eyestrain, blurred vision, difficulty focusing, and visual ashbacks, with occasional headache and difficulty concentrating. Some pilots, even those who never have any problems during ight, get alittle unsteady on their feet following aFSTD training session. Authorities usually recommend that pilots do not y, or even operate avehicle, for aperiod of †4 J4 ‡ 4Ͷ4‡040

4‘‡ ‡ ‡ Ĉś Tips to minimise motion sickness: ɡ‘0 Ĉś ‡‡K @ ‘ 4 @K40 ‘ ]4 an upset stomach ɡĪK] 4@4]†4‡ ‘‡~ ‡0 †‡‡ ]0‘‡ ɡ‡4 044 4‡~‘‡ ‡0 4†44 control ɡ‘0  04 %]‡K4 ɡIJ‡‡ ~‡%40 GK] ɡIJ‡†4 ]40 †‘4†4‡ ɡŎ4K~ 4͡‘4 ‘ Ĉś ]4~

0‘‡ 5.2 Good Training practises In order to maximise the value of an FSTD training session, full and mission orientated pre- and post ight briengs are essential and should include at least: ɡĈś Ē4~%‘4 0B44‡%4 %~4 ‡0 limitations ɡ%4‡‘ Ī4‘‡ 4‘‡ ɡś‡‡K ‘u4%4 ɡ ]‘‘K] 044@ ~‡K @%~4 techniques ɡĖ‡%~04 ś]4 ‡0 ‘ IJ‡K4†4‡ techniques throughout

5. ADDITIONAL NOTES ONFSTD TRAINING 16 >> Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training
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Flight Simulator Training Devices (FSTDs) are great tools to signicantly improve training benets and efficiency, while avoiding training accidents and the risks involved in helicopter operations. FSTDs present other advantages such as extended training scope and special manoeuvres training %~ ]‘ ~~ ~~ 4]4 conditions, and progressive learning. FSTDs are also %‘ɣ4B4%4 ‡0

4‡ʤ‘‡†4‡~~ɣ@4‡0~ ś] Ī4G4 ~‘ 4440 ]44 4‡4 ‡0 addressed additional advantages related to technological and regulatory developments, in particular regarding the use of realistic training scenarios where operational aspects can be ‡‘0%40 %]  K4‡‡4 4 4B4% However, we have to remember that helicopter regulation today does not allow zero ight time training as the xed wing regulation does, therefore aminimum number of helicopter ight hours is required for

any initial type rating. ś]4 @‘~~‘‡K u4% 44 00440 ɡśΡ4 ‘@ Ĉś Ĉś ‡0 ɡߜ ‡‡K %40 ɡ4‡4 ‘@ Ĉś ɡŢ4 ‘@ Ĉś @‘ ‘ Ρ4 ‘@ ‡‡K ŋŋĪɗŋĪʈ Ŏ4%4‡ ś‡‡K Ė‡†4‡ Rating (IR) Training, MCC training, and Role Specic Training ɡIJ‘‘‡ %y‡4 ɡĉ‘‘0 ‡‡K

%%4 6. SUMMARY Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training >> 17
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Acronyms AMC Acceptable Means of Compliance ATO Approved Training Organisation ATPL ߤ~‡4 ś‡‘ ŋ~‘ Ī%4‡%4 CPL ‘††4%~ ŋ~‘ Ī%4‡%4 EASA European Aviation Safety Agency EHEST European Helicopter Safety Team FAA Federal Aviation Administration FFS Full Flight Simulator FNPT Ĉ~K] ‡0 ijK‘‡ ŋ‘%404 ś‡4 FSTD Flight Simulation Training Device FTD Flight

Training Device GM Guidance Materials IMC Instrument Meteorological Conditions IR Instrument Rating LC Ī‡4 ]4%y MCC Multi Crew Cooperation MET Multi Engine Turbine MPH IJ~ ŋ~‘ Ē4~%‘4 NAA National Aviation Authority OEB Operational Evaluation Board OPC Ļ4‘ ŋ‘%4‡% ]4%y PC ŋ‘%4‡% ]4%y PPL ŋ4 ŋ~‘ Ī%4‡%4 SEP ‡K~4 ‡K‡4 ŋ‘‡ SET Single Engine Turbine SPH ‡K~4ɣŋ~‘ Ē4~%‘4 SRM ‡K~4 ʂŋ~‘

Ŏ4‘%4 IJ‡K4†4‡ TCAS Traffic Collision and Avoidance System VMC Visual Meteorological Conditions EASA Denitions: ɶĈ~~ Ĉ~K] †~‘ †4‡ @~~ 4 replica of a specic type or make, model and series %J GK] 04%y ‡%~0‡K ]4 4†~K4 ‘@ ~~ equipment and computer programmes necessary to 444‡ ]4 %J ‡ K‘‡0 ‡0 GK] ‘4‘‡ a visual system providing an out of- the-ight deck view, and a force cueing motion system.

ɶĈ~K] ś‡‡K 4%4 ʂĈś †4‡ @~~ 4 4~% ‘@ 4%% %J Ρ4ɴ ‡†4‡ 4†4‡ panels and controls in an open ight deck area ‘ ‡ 4‡%~‘40 %J GK] 04%y ‡%~0‡K ]4 4†~K4 ‘@ 4†4‡ ‡0 %‘†4 ‘J4 ‘K††4 ‡4%4 ‘ 444‡ ]4 %J ‡ ground and ight conditions to the extent of the systems installed in the device. It does not require aforce cueing

motion or visual system, except in the case of helicopter FTD levels 2 and 3, where visual systems are required. ɶĈ~K] ‡0 ijK‘‡ ŋ‘%404 ś‡4 means a training device which represents the ight deck or cockpit environment, including the assemblage of equipment and computer ‘K††4 ‡4%4 ‘ 444‡ ‡ %J Ρ4 or class in ight operations to the extent that the Ω4† 4 ‘ @‡%‘‡  ‡ ‡ %J Bibliography Commission Regulation (EU) No

1178/2011 as amended, laying down technical requirements and administrative procedures related to civil aviation aircrew Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) and ĉ0‡%4 IJ4~ ‘ ŋɣĈ 4%‘‡ Specication of Helicopter FSTD CS FSTD (H) ACRONYMS, BIBLIOGRAPHY 18 >> Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training
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Disclaimer: The views expressed in this leaet are the exclusive responsibility of EHEST. All information provided is of ageneral nature only and is not intended to address the

specic circumstances of any particular individual or entity. Its only ‘4 ‘ ‘04 K0‡%4 ˶]‘ B4%‡K ‡ ‡  ]4  ‘@ ‘H%~~ 0‘40 ~4K~4 ‡0 4K~‘ provisions, including Acceptable Means of Compliance or Guidance Materials. It is not intended and should not be relied upon, as any form of warranty, representation, undertaking, contractual, or other commitment binding in law ‘‡ Ē %‡ ‘ H~4 ‘K‡‘‡ ś]4 0‘‘‡

‘@ %] 4%‘††4‡0‘‡ u4% ‘ ‘~‡ commitment and engages only the responsibility of those who endorse these actions. Consequently, EHEST and its participants or affiliate organisations do not express or imply any warranty or assume any liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information or recommendation included ‡] ~4G4 ś‘ ]4 4Ͷ4‡ 4†40 Ī Ē ‡0 %‡ ‘ H~4 ‘K‡‘‡ ]~~ ‡‘ 4

~~4 forany kind of damages or other claims or demands arising out of or in connection with the use, copying, or display of this leaet. Picture credits: KŰ4~‡0 ‘%‘4 Ĉ% Ė‡4‡‘‡~ Ė‡% ś]~4 ĉ4 Ĉ4~ʈIJ ś4 Contact details for enquiries: European Helicopter Safety Team mail: ehest@easa.europa.eu , www.easa.europa.eu/essi/ehest Download the previous leaets: EHEST HE 1 Training Leaet Safety considerations

]əʈʈ4ɕ4‘ɕ4ʈ4ʈ4]4ʈˡɣ%‘‡4‡ʈ~‘0ʈ˟˝˞˟ʈ˝ˡʈĒ˞ɧĪ4G4ɧ@4ɧ%‘‡04‘‡ɧś‡‡Kɣɕ0@ EHEST HE 2 Training Leaet Helicopter airmanship

]əʈʈ4ɕ4‘ɕ4ʈ4ʈ4]4ʈˡɣ%‘‡4‡ʈ~‘0ʈ˟˝˞˞ʈ˞˟ʈĒ˟ɧ~4G4ɧ]4~%‘4ɧ†‡]ɧ˞ɕ0@ EHEST HE 3 Training Leaet Off aireld landing site operations

]əʈʈ4ɕ4‘ɕ4ʈ4ʈ4]4ʈˡɣ%‘‡4‡ʈ~‘0ʈ˟˝˞˟ʈ˝˞ʈĒˠɧĻBɣߤ4~0ɣĪ‡0‡Kɣ4ɣĻ4‘‡ɣ˞˝ɕ0@ EHEST HE 4 Training Leaet Decision making

]əʈʈ4ɕ4‘ɕ4ʈ4ʈ4]4ʈˡɣ%‘‡4‡ʈ~‘0ʈ˟˝˞˟ʈ˝ˣʈĒˡɧ‡K~4ɣŋ~‘ɣ4%‘‡ɣIJy‡Kɣ˞ɕ0@ EHEST HE 5 Training Leaet Risk Management in Training

]əʈʈ4ɕ4‘ɕ4ʈ4ʈ4]4ʈˡɣ%‘‡4‡ʈ~‘0ʈ˟˝˞ˠʈ˝ˠʈĒˢɧŎyɣ4†4‡ɣ‡ɣś‡‡Kɕ0@ IMPRINT Advantages of Simulators (FSTDs) in Helicopter Flight Training >> 19
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mponent of European Helicopter Safety Team EUROPEAN HELICOPTER SAFETY TEAM (EHEST) Component of ESSI European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Safety Analysis and Research Department Ottoplatz 1, 50679 Kln, Germany Mail

ehest@easa.europa.eu Web www.easa.europa.eu/essi/ehest July 2013