Presentations text content in Chapter 12 Infectious Diseases
Lesson 12.1 Infectious Diseases: What You Should Know
Lesson 12.2 Transmission, Treatment, and Prevention of Infectious Diseases
Lesson 12.3 Immunity to InfectionSlide3
Monday, Jan 9Slide4
Infectious Diseases: What You
What are some causes of infectious diseases?How are infectious diseases transmitted?What are some ways of treating infectious diseases?
Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and PreventionSlide7
VIDEO: Protection from Infection
Infectious Disease Vocabulary
Germ Theory: a scientific concept stating that specific microorganisms cause specific diseases.
Infectious Diseases: are caused by microorganisms living in or on humans, animals, or plants.Pathogens: Microorganisms that cause disease.Slide9
aused by microorganisms (
) living in or on humans, animals, or plants
because they can be transmitted from one living thing to another
Signs and Symptoms of Disease
are evidence of disease that can be outwardly observed or
Symptoms are evidence of disease sensed by the sick
Shortness of breath
Lesson 12.1 Signs and Symptoms
For each medical scenario presented on the handout, differentiate between the signs and symptoms for each patient. If a patient does not exhibit either signs or symptoms, write “N/A” in the appropriate column.
Work individually to complete the worksheet. We will discuss the answers in 10 minutes!Slide13
Tuesday, January 10 “A
How Do Infections Cause Illness?
pathogens enter the body, they grow, reproduce, and
cause the familiar symptoms and signs of
often follow stages in a recognizable
pattern. What are the three common stages of an infection?
is the time between the
into the body and the first
appearance of symptoms.
and symptoms of
arise and are most prominent.
In the convalescent stage, signs and symptoms of
a disease fade and a person is no
Profile of an Infection: Strep ThroatSlide19
Include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites
Are found everywhere and are typically invisible to the naked eye
Are diverse, specialized, and sophisticated
Most are helpful and few of them cause disease
Most bacteria can grow independently outside of your cells
Pathogens that infect cells
Cannot reproduce or grow on their own
Very small, cannot be seen with ordinary microscopes
Cause the common cold and other illnesses
Everyone knows about the common cold and influenza, which are notorious viral diseases. What are some lesser known but important viral diseases
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS)
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
Mumps, measles and rubella.
include mushrooms, molds, and
Few fungi cause disease and many are beneficial
infection, such as athlete’s foot,
is called a
Parasites: Protozoa and Worms
are organisms that must live inside or on another living
cause damage and
Parasitic worms and protozoa infect
number of people
Protozoa are single-celled organisms
Certain protozoa cause diseases
Mosquitoes play a part in transmitting malaria.
Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and PreventionSlide26
Parasitic worms are multicellular organisms with specialized tissues and organs
Methods of transmission
In water or food that has been contaminated with human waste
In undercooked meat and fish
Lesson 12.1 Key Concepts Review
Complete the review worksheet and turn in to Mr. Nolan.Work quietly at your table when you finish the review worksheet.Slide28
Finding Reliable Health Information
For this activity, you will find three sources of reliable information for each of the three topics listed on the worksheet.
For each source, write the name of the organization and the title of the article or web page. Do not use a source more than once.You will be finding 9 different sources!Slide29
What makes a Web Source a Good Source
It is the official site of an official organization that is well respected.
Its domain name is appropriate to the information you seek: .edu, .gov, and .org sites are usually more appropriate than .com sites.It is clear who has written the entry, the person has appropriate credentials, and it seems recent enough.
The site is updated regularly and its links to other
of Infectious Diseases
Methods of Transmission
A method of transmission is simply the way a disease gets from one organism to another
Methods of transmission are classified as either direct or indirect
shutterstock.com/Siberia-Video and PhotoSlide33
exchange of infectious material from
to a susceptible
Sexually transmitted infections
Many infectious diseases are spread through some form of contact with a person who has the disease.
The contact may be direct physical contact.
Infectious diseases can also spread through indirect contact.Slide35
The exchange of infectious material to a susceptible person by a source that acts solely as a carrier
By contaminated objects
By airborne means
Some pathogens can survive for a period of time outside a person’s body.
These pathogens can be spread from person to person on objects such as
needles used for body piercings and tattoosSlide37
Contaminated Food, Soil, or Water
Some pathogens are naturally present in food and soil.
Sometimes water and food become contaminated with pathogens from infected people.Slide38
are some diseases that could be spread through contaminated water?
Other parasitic infectionsSlide39
Occurrence of Infectious Disease
Diseases and other infections follow patterns
infection occurs in unexpectedly large numbers
infection affects an enormous number of people and spreads to much of the world
infection naturally occurs at low levels in a particular area
Emerging infectious diseases are new or increasing unexpectedlySlide40
Prevention of Infectious Diseases
with a tissue when coughing or
Vaccination can help stop the spread of an infectious disease
safeshare.tv/v/ss5627c1dfe1115How Vaccinations WorkSlide41
Hand washing is not really important in preventing the spread of infectious diseases.
Fact: Hand washing
reduces the occurrence
that are transmitted by respiratory droplets, blood, or direct
Alcohol-based hand rubs are very effective
when soap and water are unavailable.
Myth or Fact?Slide42
to prevent contamination during food processing, storage
, and preparation
Avoid nonpasteurized drinks
Refrigerate and freeze perishables
Cook meat thoroughly
Wash vegetables and fruits
Use safe drinking water
Treating Bacterial Infections
Antibiotics are substances that target and kill many kinds of pathogenic bacteria
Most antibiotics are prescription medications
A few antibiotics can be purchased at drugstores without a doctor’s prescription
Several strains of bacteria have developed antibiotic resistance and cannot be killed by antibiotics.What are some steps that can help prevent antibiotic resistance?Slide45
Treating Viral Infections
There are few treatments for viral infections
Most medications target the symptoms and do not attack the virus
Medications can help keep the virus under control while the body fights the infection
Immunity to Infection
The First Line of Defense
The immune system continually defends the body against infection
The body’s skin (integumentary system) forms a nearly impenetrable barrier to pathogens
The body’s inner surfaces also have protection in the form of mucous membranes
Other System Defenses
The respiratory system is protected by mucus
In the digestive system, mucus coats the throat, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and rectum
The regular flow of urine flushes microorganisms from the urinary system
Helpful bacteria occupy the large intestine and inhibit the growth of pathogens.Slide49
The Second Line of Defense
is a white blood cell that destroys microorganisms
Inflammation prepares the body to control and remove pathogens
Fever stimulates phagocytes and other white blood cells important for immunity
Body Scientific International, LLC.
Click here for the “Events of Phagocytosis” animationSlide50
The Third Line of Defense
The third defense system is made up of specialized cells and chemicals
T cells reside in the blood, lymph nodes, and spleen
A T-helper cell coordinates and
stimulates the immune response
The T-cytotoxic cell attacks and
kills cells in your body that have
been infected with viruses
Promoting Resistance to Infection
Resistance to infectious diseases depends on ahealthy immune system and a healthy body.
What are some steps that you can take to promote good health?Slide52
B Cells and Antibodies
B cells also reside in the blood, lymph nodes, and spleen, where they make special chemicals called
An antibody sticks to a pathogen, labeling it as foreign to the body
This makes it easier for phagocytes to find and engulf the pathogens
Body Scientific International, LLC.Slide53
Immune System “Memory”
The B cells and T cells of the immune system remember encounters with pathogens
They can respond quickly to later exposures to these same pathogens
The immune response to later encounters can be so strong that you may not become ill at all
The immune system benefits from good nutrition and exercise
Some lifestyle choices, such as smoking, can suppress immunitySlide54
Your Immune System: Natural Born Killer
Monday, May 4 “C” DaySlide56