Chapter 12 Infectious Diseases

Chapter 12 Infectious Diseases Chapter 12 Infectious Diseases - Start

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Chapter 12 Infectious Diseases




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Presentations text content in Chapter 12 Infectious Diseases

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Chapter 12

Infectious Diseases

Lesson 12.1 Infectious Diseases: What You Should Know

Lesson 12.2 Transmission, Treatment, and Prevention of Infectious Diseases

Lesson 12.3 Immunity to Infection

Slide3

Monday, Jan 9

Slide4

Infectious Diseases: What You

Should Know

Lesson 12.1

Slide5

Slide6

Warm-Up

Infectious Diseases

What are some causes of infectious diseases?How are infectious diseases transmitted?What are some ways of treating infectious diseases?

Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Slide7

VIDEO: Protection from Infection

VIDEO

Slide8

Infectious Disease Vocabulary

Germ Theory: a scientific concept stating that specific microorganisms cause specific diseases.

Infectious Diseases: are caused by microorganisms living in or on humans, animals, or plants.Pathogens: Microorganisms that cause disease.

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Infectious Diseases

C

aused by microorganisms (

pathogens

) living in or on humans, animals, or plants

Also called

communicable diseases

because they can be transmitted from one living thing to another

shutterstock.com/wavebreakmedia

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Signs and Symptoms of Disease

Signs

are evidence of disease that can be outwardly observed or

measured

Fever

An

abnormal

pulse

Symptoms are evidence of disease sensed by the sick

person

Pain

Shortness of breath

shutterstock.com/bikeriderlondon

Slide12

Lesson 12.1 Signs and Symptoms

For each medical scenario presented on the handout, differentiate between the signs and symptoms for each patient. If a patient does not exhibit either signs or symptoms, write “N/A” in the appropriate column.

Work individually to complete the worksheet. We will discuss the answers in 10 minutes!

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1

st

Period

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6th Period

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Tuesday, January 10 “A

” Day

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How Do Infections Cause Illness?

After

pathogens enter the body, they grow, reproduce, and

produce toxins

Toxins

cause the familiar symptoms and signs of

illness

Pain

Inflammation

Headache

shutterstock.com/S_L

Slide17

Infections

often follow stages in a recognizable

pattern. What are the three common stages of an infection?

The

incubation period

is the time between the

pathogen’s entrance

into the body and the first

appearance of symptoms.

In the

clinical stage

, signs

and symptoms of

a disease

arise and are most prominent.

In the convalescent stage, signs and symptoms of

a disease fade and a person is no

longer contagious.

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Profile of an Infection: Strep Throat

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Microorganisms

Include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites

Are found everywhere and are typically invisible to the naked eye

Are diverse, specialized, and sophisticated

shutterstock.com/kurhan

Slide20

Bacteria

Single-celled organisms

Most are helpful and few of them cause disease

Most bacteria can grow independently outside of your cells

shutterstock.com/science photo

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Viruses

Pathogens that infect cells

Cannot reproduce or grow on their own

Very small, cannot be seen with ordinary microscopes

Cause the common cold and other illnesses

shutterstock.com/Subbotina Anna

http://

safeshare.tv/v/ss5627bfd54ab81

Ebola Virus

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Critical Thinking

Viruses

Everyone knows about the common cold and influenza, which are notorious viral diseases. What are some lesser known but important viral diseases

?

Chickenpox.

Flu (influenza)

Herpes.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS)

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

Infectious mononucleosis.

Mumps, measles and rubella.

Shingles.

Slide23

Fungi

Fungi

include mushrooms, molds, and

yeast

Few fungi cause disease and many are beneficial

A fungal

infection, such as athlete’s foot,

is called a

mycosis

shutterstock.com/pedalist

Slide24

Parasites: Protozoa and Worms

Parasites

are organisms that must live inside or on another living

thing

They

cause damage and

disease

Parasitic worms and protozoa infect

a great

number of people

shutterstock.com/PathDoc

Slide25

Protozoa

Protozoa are single-celled organisms

Certain protozoa cause diseases

Malaria

Dysentery

Diarrhea

Mosquitoes play a part in transmitting malaria.

Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Slide26

Worms

Parasitic worms are multicellular organisms with specialized tissues and organs

Methods of transmission

In water or food that has been contaminated with human waste

In undercooked meat and fish

shutterstock.com/moreimages

Slide27

Lesson 12.1 Key Concepts Review

Complete the review worksheet and turn in to Mr. Nolan.Work quietly at your table when you finish the review worksheet.

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Finding Reliable Health Information

For this activity, you will find three sources of reliable information for each of the three topics listed on the worksheet.

For each source, write the name of the organization and the title of the article or web page. Do not use a source more than once.You will be finding 9 different sources!

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What makes a Web Source a Good Source

It is the official site of an official organization that is well respected.

Its domain name is appropriate to the information you seek: .edu, .gov, and .org sites are usually more appropriate than .com sites.It is clear who has written the entry, the person has appropriate credentials, and it seems recent enough.

The site is updated regularly and its links to other

sites work.

Slide30

Transmission, Treatment,

and Prevention

of Infectious Diseases

Lesson 12.2

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Methods of Transmission

A method of transmission is simply the way a disease gets from one organism to another

Methods of transmission are classified as either direct or indirect

shutterstock.com/Siberia-Video and Photo

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Direct Transmission

The

exchange of infectious material from

its origin

to a susceptible

individual

Direct contact

Sexually transmitted infections

Skin infections

Droplet spread

Sneezing

Coughing

shutterstock.com/JPC-PROD

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Infected People

Many infectious diseases are spread through some form of contact with a person who has the disease.

The contact may be direct physical contact.

Infectious diseases can also spread through indirect contact.

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Indirect Transmission

The exchange of infectious material to a susceptible person by a source that acts solely as a carrier

By animals

By contaminated objects

By airborne means

thinkstock.com/iStock/MikeLane45

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Contaminated Objects

Some pathogens can survive for a period of time outside a person’s body.

These pathogens can be spread from person to person on objects such as

doorknobs

eating utensils

towels

needles used for body piercings and tattoos

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Contaminated Food, Soil, or Water

Some pathogens are naturally present in food and soil.

Sometimes water and food become contaminated with pathogens from infected people.

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What

are some diseases that could be spread through contaminated water?

E

.

coli

Hepatitis

Typhoid

Cholera

Other parasitic infections

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Occurrence of Infectious Disease

Diseases and other infections follow patterns

An

epidemic

infection occurs in unexpectedly large numbers

A

pandemic

infection affects an enormous number of people and spreads to much of the world

An

endemic

infection naturally occurs at low levels in a particular area

Emerging infectious diseases are new or increasing unexpectedly

Slide40

Prevention of Infectious Diseases

Effective

preventive measures

can reduce

the

incidence of

infectious

diseases

Doctors

recommend covering

your nose

and mouth

with a tissue when coughing or

sneezing

Vaccination can help stop the spread of an infectious disease

shutterstock.com/MSPhotographic

http://

safeshare.tv/v/ss5627c1dfe1115How Vaccinations Work

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Hand washing is not really important in preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

MYTH

Fact: Hand washing

reduces the occurrence

of

infectious diseases

that are transmitted by respiratory droplets, blood, or direct

skin contact.

Fact:

Alcohol-based hand rubs are very effective

when soap and water are unavailable.

Myth or Fact?

Slide42

Food Sanitation

Used

to prevent contamination during food processing, storage

, and preparation

Avoid nonpasteurized drinks

Refrigerate and freeze perishables

Cook meat thoroughly

Wash vegetables and fruits

Use safe drinking water

shutterstock.com/Olesya Feketa

Slide43

Treating Bacterial Infections

Antibiotics are substances that target and kill many kinds of pathogenic bacteria

Most antibiotics are prescription medications

A few antibiotics can be purchased at drugstores without a doctor’s prescription

shutterstock.com/Sheila Fitzgerald

Slide44

Critical Thinking

Antibiotic Resistance

Several strains of bacteria have developed antibiotic resistance and cannot be killed by antibiotics.What are some steps that can help prevent antibiotic resistance?

Slide45

Treating Viral Infections

There are few treatments for viral infections

Most medications target the symptoms and do not attack the virus

Medications can help keep the virus under control while the body fights the infection

shutterstock.com/Poznyakov

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Immunity to Infection

Lesson 12.3

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The First Line of Defense

The immune system continually defends the body against infection

The body’s skin (integumentary system) forms a nearly impenetrable barrier to pathogens

The body’s inner surfaces also have protection in the form of mucous membranes

shutterstock.com/Michaelpuche

Slide48

Other System Defenses

The respiratory system is protected by mucus

In the digestive system, mucus coats the throat, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and rectum

The regular flow of urine flushes microorganisms from the urinary system

shutterstock.com/xrender

Helpful bacteria occupy the large intestine and inhibit the growth of pathogens.

Slide49

The Second Line of Defense

A

phagocyte

is a white blood cell that destroys microorganisms

Inflammation prepares the body to control and remove pathogens

Fever stimulates phagocytes and other white blood cells important for immunity

Body Scientific International, LLC.

Click here for the “Events of Phagocytosis” animation

Slide50

The Third Line of Defense

The third defense system is made up of specialized cells and chemicals

T cells reside in the blood, lymph nodes, and spleen

A T-helper cell coordinates and

stimulates the immune response

The T-cytotoxic cell attacks and

kills cells in your body that have

been infected with viruses

shutterstock.com/docstockmedia

Slide51

Critical Thinking

Promoting Resistance to Infection

Resistance to infectious diseases depends on ahealthy immune system and a healthy body.

What are some steps that you can take to promote good health?

Slide52

B Cells and Antibodies

B cells also reside in the blood, lymph nodes, and spleen, where they make special chemicals called

antibodies

An antibody sticks to a pathogen, labeling it as foreign to the body

This makes it easier for phagocytes to find and engulf the pathogens

Body Scientific International, LLC.

Slide53

Immune System “Memory”

The B cells and T cells of the immune system remember encounters with pathogens

They can respond quickly to later exposures to these same pathogens

The immune response to later encounters can be so strong that you may not become ill at all

The immune system benefits from good nutrition and exercise

Some lifestyle choices, such as smoking, can suppress immunity

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Your Immune System: Natural Born Killer

http://

safeshare.tv/w/OZFRLSljvH

Slide55

Monday, May 4 “C” Day

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