. Filoviruses. 9.1 Overview. 9.2: Outbreaks:. Marburg, . N’zara. , . Yambuku. , Reston, . Kikwit. , West Africa. 9.3 Summary. 9.1: Overview. “Mystery” viruses. Seem to come out of nowhere. Frightening symptoms. ID: 758449
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, West Africa
Seem to come out of nowhere
A recipe for disease terrorSlide3
First recorded filovirus outbreak-brought
To Europe by imported lab
Different strains of Ebola (Ebola Zaire/Ebola Sudan)
Source of the virus-unknown!Slide5
Death Toll 280/318
EBO-Z surfaced shortly after the first Ebola outbreak in Sudan and killed 280 of the 318 people it infected. On September 1, 1976, four days after returning from a tour of northern Zaire, the index case, a 44 year-old male teacher at the Mission School, sought medical intervention for a febrile illness he thought to be malaria. He received a
(an anti-malaria drug) from
Mission Hospital (YMH). YMH did not use disposable needles or sterilize the needles between uses.
injection was the primary mode of administering nearly all medicines, and Ebola-Zaire (EBO-Z) was quickly disseminated into the surrounding villages serviced by YMH. After 11 of its 17 staff members fell ill with EHF, YMH closed on September 30, 1976, 29 days after the index case received his injection of
. The WHO International Commission was formed on October 18th, and research teams were mobilized on October 30th. The last case of EBO-Z died on November 5, 1976. Transmission of Ebola during this outbreak occurred mainly through the use of contaminated needles to administer medicine.Slide6
Yambuku disease cowboys in actionSlide7
Lethal in monkeys but mild in humans
Death toll = 244/315
Urban outbreak in Africa-
West Africa Outbreak
Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone
Recent evidence indicates that various types of bats carry filoviruses.
Human-bat contact spreads the disease