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Aggression and Rejection Aggression and Rejection

Aggression and Rejection - PowerPoint Presentation

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Aggression and Rejection - PPT Presentation

Types of aggression Physical vs verbal Relational includes ostracism Direct and indirect Displaced and Triggered displaced Active vs passive Reactive vs proactive Antisocial behavior vs aggression vs violence ID: 385303

rejection aggression watch model aggression rejection model watch youtube www people violence media perspective 2009 amp violent effects reactions leary hurt relationship

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Presentation Transcript

Slide1

Aggression and RejectionSlide2

Definitions

What is aggression? Violence? Antisocial behavior? Slide3

Operational definitions

Aggression questionnaire

(Buss & Perry, 1972)

Conflict Tactics Scales

(Straus et al., 1996)

Olweus

Bullying and Victimization

Questionnaire (

Olweus

, 1996)

Peer nominations

Experimental manipulations

What is the best way to measure aggression? Slide4

Types of aggression

Physical vs. verbal

Direct

and indirect

Active

vs. passive

Reactive vs. proactive

Relational (includes ostracism)

Displaced and Triggered displacedSlide5

Theories

Who is the theory/theories associated with?

What does it say causes aggression?

When will there be more/less aggression?

Which types of aggression does it mostly deal with?

How would you reduce aggression, according to this theory?

What type of theory is it? (cognitive, evolutionary, motivational, etc.)Slide6

Instinctual/PsychoanalyticSlide7

Frustration-aggressionSlide8

Learning theoriesSlide9

Physiological arousalSlide10

Social cognitiveSlide11

Social information processing model (Crick & Dodge, 1994

)

Encode

(notice)

Interpret situation

Decide on goal

Think of possible responses

Evaluate possible responses

Enactment (do it) Slide12

General aggression model (Anderson; Figure 8.2)Slide13

CultureTime

Herding cultures (Southern Culture of Honor,

Nisbett

, Cohen)

Gender

Cultural influencesSlide14

Violent video game effects

What would aggression theories predict about VVG effects?

Why do people play VVG?

What effects does the APA report suggest VVG have?

On what areas are there still not much data?

Are there alternative explanations for these effects? Slide15

Results of Meta-Analyses for All Outcomes

Calvert, S. L., Appelbaum, M., Dodge, K. A., Graham, S., Nagayama Hall, G. C., Hamby, S., . . . Hedges, L. V. (2017). The American Psychological Association Task Force assessment of violent video games: Science in the service of public interest.

American Psychologist, 72

(2), 126-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0040413

© 2017 American Psychological AssociationSlide16

What do meta-analyses really tell us?

Hilgard

et al., 2017 reanalysis of Anderson et al, 2010

Kepes

et al., 2017 response

Mathur

&

VanderWeele

, 2019

What are some researcher

dfs

in meta-analysis?

What is their conclusion? Slide17

Table 1. Estimates From Video-Game Meta-Analyses

DOI: (10.1177/1745691619850104) Slide18

Halbrook, O’Donnell, &

Mselfi

, 2019

Positive effects of VG

Effects may be moderated by:

Motivation for gaming

Skill

How interpret game violence

Outside variables (family, peer, depression)

Social interaction (coop games can be good)

Physical exercise (

exergames

)Slide19

How does the media affect coverage?

How does the media cover violent media?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGF9ilppIiI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u_DO9TT15yQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvhovITygBI

Does this occur in other areas of science?

What can scientists do to reduce/address this problem?

Why do people think there is less of a link than there is?

What are our obligations as scientists to the public? Slide20

Comparison of the Effect of Violent Media on Aggression With Effects From Other Domains

Note. All correlations are significantly different from zero. a = the effect of smoking tobacco on lung cancer, as estimated by pooling the data from Figures 1 and 3 in Wynder and Graham's (1950) classic article. The remaining effects were estimated from meta-analyses: b = Paik and Comstock (1994), c = Weller (1993), d = Wells (1998), e = Needleman and Gatsonis (1990), f = Fiore, Smith, Jorenby, and Baker (1994), g = Welten, Kemper, Post, and van Staveren (1995), h = Cooper (1989), i = Smith, Handley, and Wood (1990), and j = Hill, White, Jolley, and Mapperson (1988).

Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation.

American Psychologist, 56

(6-7), 477-489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.6-7.477

© 2001 American Psychological AssociationSlide21

Effect of Media Violence on Aggression: News Reports Versus Scientific Studies

Note. Ratings based on news reports are positive if the article said that exposure to media violence is positively related to aggression. Correlations based on scientific studies are positive if media violence was positively related to aggression.

Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation.

American Psychologist, 56

(6-7), 477-489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.6-7.477

© 2001 American Psychological AssociationSlide22

What about guns/mass shootings?

Mass shootings in US

Cultural comparisons

Do guns keep us safe?

Dickey amendmentSlide23

Person factors in aggression

Age

Gender

Executive brain function

Serotonin

Testosterone

Dark personality traits

Trait

aggression

Unstable self-esteem (“hollow”;

Baumeister

)Slide24

Situational effects on aggression

Provocation

Bad moods

Pain

Revenge

Alcohol

Marijuana

Heat

, noise, crowding, air pollution

Crowds/Anonymity

Weapons effect (Berkowitz)

Media

violence/video gamesSlide25

Reducing aggression

What doesn’t work? Why?

What does work? Why?

What should we do as parents? Individuals? Society?Slide26

Rejection

How has rejection been studied? Are these equivalent?

https://

www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3UTXsJzAj4Slide27

Ostracism blocks needs

Sociometer

theory

(Leary)

Temporal need-threat model (Williams)Slide28

Consequences and purposes

What are the consequences of rejection?

Why are people rejected?

What purpose could rejection serve? Slide29

Multimotive model of reactions to interpersonal rejection experiences.

Smart Richman, L., & Leary, M. R. (2009). Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and other forms of interpersonal rejection: A multimotive model.

Psychological Review, 116

(2), 365-383. doi:10.1037/a0015250

© 2009 American Psychological AssociationSlide30

Responsive theory of social exclusion (Freedman,

Wms

, Beer, 2016)

What does it add to previous approaches?

What are the source’s needs in rejection?

What types of social exclusion does it describe? Examples?

Is explicit rejection really best? (and if so, why do people choose the other options?)

What are possible moderators?

What makes for a nicer explicit rejection?

How may culture affect this? Slide31

Coming up

Terrorism and extremism (6 articles, no chapters)

Final exam questions before TG break

Paper and presentation rubrics