Essays

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Essays




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Presentations text content in Essays

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Essays

Senior High English

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Narrative – has a purpose for telling; a true event; a single incident Memoir - a person’s story about his or her lifeDescriptive - writing that creates images of people, places, objectsArgumentative – a rational argument which uses evidencePersuasive - writing that attempts to convince the audience to adopt a certain point of view or to act in a certain way

Types of Essays

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Expository essays are characterized on the basis of their method of development:Example and IllustrationCause and EffectClassification and Division Process AnalysisComparison and/or Contrast

5 Types of Expository Essays

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Expository Essay: general to specific a thesis in an expository essay is supported with arguments, examplesIntroduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion

Method of Organization

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Narrative Essay: organized by sequence of eventschronological (time order)

Method of Organization

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Descriptive Essay:Spatial - space ( i.e your favourite place)where the eye moves: up, down, over, across, under, etc. )Dominant impression: overall description of an object, place, etc.i.e. My car is a jalopy, but I love it.The bedroom is a dump.  I think I have carpet under the piles of clothes and junk.

Method of Organization

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Remember the three “E’s”To explainTo educate To entertain ANDTo informTo analyzeTo tell a storyTo describe

Purpose: The Reason for Writing

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A writer’s purpose is often shaped by the kind of audience they are writing for: Young peopleParentsGovernment Daycare workersStore ownersConsumersAvoid “everyone” – try to be specific

Audience

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The overall idea of the essay containing the writer’s main through in sentence form.Should be expressed in one or two sentences

Thesis Statement

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The topic sentence does for a paragraph what a thesis does for a complete essay.Expresses the main idea contained in the paragraphIt is often placed as the first sentence in the paragraph

Topic Sentence

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The author's attitude towards his topic and/or audience. Although an author may directly state this attitude it is more likely to be implied. Tone is considered formal or informal; personal or impersonal

Tone

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The tone is implied through: the author's diction (word choice)through the connotation (what a word suggests beyond its dictionary meaning)and from sentence structure i.e. long sentences suggest a serious or more formal tone

Tone

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AngrySadSentimentalAfraidHappySharpColdHappyDetachedCynicalUpsetJokingSympatheticWonderment SillyChildish ConfusedHumorousThoughtful ApologeticJoyfulSweetObjectiveDisgustSarcasticMockingPitifulBitterArroganceVexedNostalgicHorrificProudFurious

Examples of Tone

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SlangColloquialisms –sayings common to a cultureplain language of everyday useidiomatic expressions – ace up your sleeve; above board; cut the apron stringsContractions – can’t; won’t; I’ll many simple, common words.

Style: Informal

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Writer uses dignified, serious, and elevated language; Follows the rules of syntax exactlyUses complex words and lofty tone.

Style: Formal

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Unity – refers to the tying together of ideas to connect to the thesis\Oneness in writing

Unity

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Clear thesis statementEach part of the essay relates to the thesisGeneralizations are supported with evidence – use of examplesTopic sentences in body paragraphs relate to the thesisTypes of closings

How Unity is Achieved:

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Types of Closings:Summary Thesis restatement Closing by return

Unity and Types of Closings

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Expository essay – single focusDescriptive essay – dominant impressionNarrative essay – concentration on a single story

Unity in Specific Types of Essays

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The arranging of ideas in logical order to show relationships between ideas through the use of the following main writing techniques:1. Transitional Terms2. Pronoun Reference3. Repetition of Key Words4. Use of Synonyms5. Parallel Structure

Coherence

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Words, phrases, or even sentences used to show the relationship between ideasin a sentencewithin a paragraphbetween paragraphsTransitions help to achieve unity and coherence.

1. Transitions

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A good education is important for a number of reasons. First, it broadens your mind. Second, you learn new things. Finally, you prepare for the future.

Examples of Transitions

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I like autumn, and yet autumn is a sad time of the year, too. The leaves turn bright shades of red and the weather is mild, but I can't help thinking ahead to the winter and the ice storms that will surely blow through here. In addition, that will be the season of chapped faces, too many layers of clothes to put on, and days when I'll have to shovel heaps of snow from my car's windshield.

Examples of Transitions

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To Add:and, again, and then, besides, equally important, finally, further, furthermore, moreover, in addition, first (second, etc.),To Compare:but, yet, on the other hand, however, nevertheless, on the other hand, on the contrary, by comparison, compared to,balanced, although, conversely, meanwhile, after all, in contrast, although this may be trueTo Prove:because, for, since, for the same reason, obviously, evidently, furthermore, moreover, besides, indeed, in fact, inadditionTo Show Time:immediately, thereafter, soon, after a few hours, finally, then, later, previously, formerly, first (second, etc.), next, andthenTo Emphasize:definitely, obviously, in fact, indeed, in any case, absolutely, positively, naturally, unquestionably, without a doubt,certainly, undeniably, without reservationTo Show Sequence:first, second, third, and so forth. following this, at this time, now, at this point, after, afterward, subsequently, finally,consequently, previously, thus, therefore, hence, next, and then, soonTo Give an Example:for example, for instance, in this case, take the case of, to demonstrate, to illustrate, as an illustration, to illustrateTo Summarize or Conclude:in brief, on the whole, summing up, to conclude, hence, therefore, accordingly, thus, as a result, consequently

Transitions

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2. Pronoun Reference

This, that, these, those, he, she, it,

they

,

we

are useful pronouns for referring back to something previously mentioned.

Example

:

When

scientific experiments

do not work out as expected,

they

are often considered failures until some other scientist tries

them

again.

Those

that work out better the second time around are the ones that promise the most rewards.

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3. Repetition

helps to focus ideas and to keep the reader on track.

Example

:

The problem with

contemporary art

is that it is not

easily understood by most people.

Contemporary

art

is deliberately abstract, and that means it

leaves the viewer wondering what she is looking

at.

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4. Use of synonyms

Synonyms

words that have essentially the same meaning, and they provide some

variety in word choice, helping the reader to stay focused on the idea being discussed.

Example

:

Myths

narrate sacred histories and explain sacred origins.

These

traditional narratives

are, in short, a set of beliefs that are a very real force in the lives of the people who tell them.

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5. Parallel Structure

using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance.

This can happen at the word, phrase, or sentence level.

Example:

Mary likes

to

hike,

to

swim, and

to

ride a bicycle.

The coach told the players

that they

should get a lot of sleep,

that they

should not eat too much, and

that they

should do some warm-up exercises before the game.

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7 different types of openings:Anecdote – brief storyShocking statisticQuestionQuotationBrief descriptionA personal exampleDefinition

Openings

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Call to action (for persuasive essays) Thesis restatement – the thesis is rewordedClosing by return – the writer refers to something from the openingSummary – a main point or two from each body paragraph

Closings

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writers achieve coherency with effective use of sentences.

Sentence Fluency

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Short sentences:  (and sentence fragments – incomplete thoughts, phrases)Speed up a piece of writing – rapid movementCreate tension – anxiety, fear, excitementUsed for emphasis - identify what is being stressed

Short Sentences

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Develop more complex ideasSerious descriptionFormal writing

Long Sentences

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Diction = author’s word choiceExamine the dictionary meaning of words – denotationFigure out the implied meaning or the connotation

Diction

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There is no single, correct diction in the English language; instead, you choose different words or phrases for different contexts:To a friend             "a screw-up"To a child               "a mistake"To the police          "an accident"To an employer      "an oversight”

Diction

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It is not a question to be answered. It is used to:Launch or further discussionCapture interests of the audienceIdentify the topic; often focuses on the central idea or topicTo get the reader thinking about the topicx

Rhetorical Question

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