Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Israeli-Palestinian Conflict - Start

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Israeli-Palestinian Conflict




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Presentations text content in Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Slide1

Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Origins to Today

Slide2

Beginnings

Historical animosity among groups for control of the holy land

Judaism

ChristianityIslamIsrael became state in 1948Desired Jewish state after WWIIUnwelcome in mostly Arab regionSeries of warsMost opposed by PalestiniansClaim land belongs to themMuslims & Christians

Slide3

A Jewish Homeland ?

Land of Palestine now Israel, West Bank, and Gaza Strip

Jewish kings ruled region from Jerusalem dating 3,000 years ago

Belonged to Palestinians since Jews were driven out around 135CEArabs believe land has belonged to them since the 7th century CEJewish people lived in different countries after being forced from PalestineGlobal dispersal known as the Diaspora

Zionists

began returning to the region their ancestors had fled in the 19

th

& 20

th

centuries

Palestine still part of the Ottoman Empire, ruled by Islamic Turks

League of Nations asked Britain to oversee Palestine until it was ready for independence following WWI

Breakup of Ottoman Empire

Mandate System

Growing presence in Palestine & pressing for own nation

Strongly opposed by Arabs

Balfour Declaration

– British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour promoted idea of Jewish homeland in Palestine that also protected the rights of non-Jewish communities

Efforts to create Jewish state failed

Slide4

Partition of Palestine

United Nations General Assembly

voted to partition Palestine into an Arab Palestinian state & Jewish Israel in 1947

Jerusalem was to be an international city owned by neither sideJews gained 55% of the area, even though they made up only 34% of the populationSympathy after the HolocaustAll Islamic countries voted against partitionPalestinians rejected it outrightArgued the UN didn’t have the right to partition a territory without considering the wishes of the majority of its people

Formation of Israel

May 14, 1948

Slide5

Slide6

Conflict

Day after independence – invaded by six Islamic States – Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, & Syria

Ended within months in a victory for Israel

Full-scale war broke again in 1956, 1967, and 1973Several hundred thousand Jews living in Arab lands moved to IsraelState UN set aside for Arabs never came into being as result of the fightingIsrael seized half the land in 1948-49 fighting600,000 Palestinians fled from areas under Israeli controlSettled in UN-sponsored refugee camps

Various Arab nations seized other Palestinian lands

Egypt controlled Gaza Strip

Jordan annexed the West Bank of the Jordan River

Slide7

Slide8

Suez Crisis, 1956

Second Arab-Israeli war broke in 1956

Egypt seized control of the Suez Canal

President Gamal Abdel Nasser sent in troops to take the canalWas controlled by British interestsPrompted in large part over loss of US & British financial support for building of Aswan Dam (because they got arms from the Soviet Union – still Cold War!)British made agreement with France & Israel to retake the canalIsraelis marched on Suez Canal & quickly defeated EgyptiansSupported by European air support

Pressures from world community forced Israel & Europeans to withdraw from Egypt

Left Egypt in charge of the canal

Slide9

Continuing Wars

Tensions built again after the Suez crisis

Six-Day War

Nasser & Arab allies, equipped with Soviet tanks & aircraft, ready to confront Israel by early 1967Nasser moved to close off the Gulf of Aqaba, Israel’s outlet to the Red SeaIsraelis retaliated striking Arab airfields in Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and SyriaGround forces struck like lightning on three frontsIsrael defeated the Arab states800 Israeli troops lost compared to 15,000 Arabs

Consequences

Israel gained control of Jerusalem, the Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights, and the West Bank

Buffer zone against further Arab attacks

Arabs living in Jerusalem given choice of Israeli or Jordanian citizenship, most choosing Jordanian

People living in other areas not offered Israeli citizenship & simply came under Jewish control

Yom Kippur War

Fourth conflict erupted in October 1972

Nasser’s successor Anwar Sadat planned joint attack on Yom Kippur

Caught Israelis by surprise

Heavy casualties & recaptured territory lost in 1967

Israelis, under PM Golda Meir, launched counter attack & regained lost territory

Both sides agreed to truce after several weeks of fighting

Slide10

Palestine Liberation Organization

Arab Palestinians struggled for recognition as fighting occurred

UN granted Palestinians own homeland, but Israelis seized much of that land

Especially important – West Bank & Gaza StripPalestinian officials formed the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1964 to push for formation of an Arab Palestinian state that would include land claimed by IsraelOriginally made up of different groups – laborers, teachers, lawyers, and guerilla fightersSoon dominated by guerillas, insisting only way to achieve goal was through armed struggle

1969 –

Yasir

Arafat

became chairman

Carried out numerous terrorist attacks against Israel through 1960s and ‘70s

Neighboring Arab countries supported by allowing guerillas to operate from their lands

Slide11

Efforts at Peace

1977 –

Anwar Sadat

extended a hand to Israel four years after Yom Kippur War, inviting past enemy to join him in quest for peaceEmphasized that Israel would have to recognize rights of PalestiniansIsrael would have to withdraw from territory seized in 1967 from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria 1978 – President Jimmy Carter invited Sadat and Israeli PM Menachem Begin

to Camp David (presidential retreat in Maryland)

Isolated from press & domestic political pressures

Worked to reach an agreement

Egypt recognized Israel as legitimate state after 13 days of negotiations

Israel agreed to return Sinai Peninsula to Egypt

Signed Camp David Accords

in 1979, ending 30 years of hostilities between Egypt & Israel

Sadat’s efforts at peace enraged many Arab countries

Assassinated by Muslim extremists in 1981

Slide12

Tensions Increase

Palestinians continued to clash with Israelis

Lived in West Bank & Gaza Strip – controlled by Israel

Military wing of the PLO conducted campaign against Israel in the 1970s-80sIsrael responded by bombing suspected rebel bases in Palestinian townsArmy invaded Lebanon to destroy strongholds in Palestinian villages in 1982Israelis became involved in Lebanon’s civil war & forced to withdrawPalestinians expressed frustrations in campaign of civil disobedience called the intifada

(

uprising)

Took form of boycotts, demonstrations, attacks on Israeli soldiers, & rock throwing by unarmed teenagers

Continued into 1990s with little progress

Affected world opinion, which put pressure on Israel to seek negotiations with Palestinians

Met for series of peace talks in October 1991

Slide13

Oslo Peace Accords

Palestinians & Israelis made little progress in negotiations

Secret talks held in Oslo (Norway) in 1993 produced surprise agreement

Declaration of Principles (AKA Oslo Peace Accords) Israel agreed to grant Palestinians self-rule in Gaza Strip & West Bank, under PM Yitzhak Rabin, beginning with town of JerichoRabin & Arafat signed agreement on Sept. 13, 1993Difficulty to make agreement work – demonstrated by assassination of Rabin in 1995

Killed by right-wing Jewish extremist who opposed concessions to Palestinians

Succeeded by Benjamin Netanyahu, who opposed Oslo Accords, but made efforts to keep the agreement

Met with Arafat to work out plans for partial Israeli withdrawal from West Bank in 1997

Slide14

Solutions?

Resolution to this conflict may be key to resolving other conflicts in the Middle East

Some see it as creating Arab resentment toward the West

Western nations ally with IsraelFueling Islamic terrorismFew discussions are impartial & non-partisanOne-State Solution – combine Israelis & Palestinians into one stateTrend among support by Palestinians flip flops, hovering between 40-50%One-state solution likely to see discrimination & racism

Would split parliament into two sides – could anything be accomplished?

Looks like Israel does not want two-state solution

80% citizens of Israeli lands have full democratic & civil rights; 20% are Palestinians with institutionalized discrimination in civil & political life

Two-State Solution

– Split into the original idea: Jewish State & Arab State

Palestinians desire independent state

Single state would destroy capacity of Israel to be a Jewish state

Requires Israel & Palestine to live up to commitments for peace

Could Palestine survive economically?

Gaza & West Bank too far apart to work?

Ethnically pure states are divisive & incite conflict ?

Slide15

Recent Controversies

Fighting in Gaza June-August 2014

Military operation launched by Israel on July 8 in Hamas-ruled Gaza strip [“to stop rocket fire from Gaza”]

Israeli bombardment, Palestinian rocket attacks, & ground fighting2,200 deaths – mostly GazansFragile ceasefire Human rights violations in 2015 in West BankCyclical process of military occupation & ongoing violenceUndermines right to self-determination of Palestinians

Bad light on Israel’s compliance with international humanitarian & human rights laws

Iran Nuclear Issue

Nuclear capabilities would threaten Israel

US backs Israel… but wants to negotiate with Iran

Netanyahu has appealed to US Congress against Palestinian statehood

Slide16


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