Materials Handling and Transfer
Materials Handling and Transfer

Materials Handling and Transfer - PowerPoint Presentation

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Piping Systems Piping S ystem Definition Interconnected piping subjected to the same design conditions Piping system components Pipes Fittings flanges threaded welded Valves Expansion joints ID: 540579 Download Presentation

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Materials Handling and Transfer

“Piping Systems”Slide2

Piping System Definition

:Interconnected piping subjected to the same design conditions.Piping system components

PipesFittings (flanges, threaded, welded)Valves

Expansion jointsStrainersTraps

Inline instrumentsSupports (anchors)Slide3

Identification Systems

ASTM SystemSlide4

PVC pipes take the letter DSlide6

Pipes specifications:

Pipes are specified according to wall thickness by a standard formula for schedule number

On increasing schedule number, the pipe wall thickness increaseSlide7

What is the nominal diameter?

The ND code is a code that rounds off the diameter of the pipe to get an even number to work with, not the exact diameter. The American version is called

NPS (Nominal Pipe Size) and is in English

units. ND

is the European version and is based on millimeters. For example, If you want 2" Pipe, NPS calls it 2" and


calls it 50 mm. but the actual outside diameter is neither 2" or 50 mm. They just use these nice round numbers cause it is easier.Slide11

Pipe Sizing

1- Wall Thickness

tm: is the minimum required thicknessD

m: mean diameter2- Optimum DiameterSlide12

Fittings and other piping auxiliaries.Are used to:

A- Connect pieces of pipes togetherB- Change the flow directionC- Regulate the flowD- Obtain desired conditions in a flow system

Types of fittings1- Threaded fittings( screwed) [for small size]2- Flanges [for diameter  3 in.]

3- WeldingSlide15

Threaded (screwed) fittings Slide16

Threaded (screwed) fittings Slide17

Flanged fittingsSlide18

Flanged fittingsSlide19

Piping Systems Problems

1- Solidification and corrosion2- Thermal expansion3- Liquid pocketsSlide20

Liquid pocketsThey can be caused by gas/liquid getting into a liquid/gas pipe. Sometimes the pressure or temperature of the fluid within a pipe will change and that can allow phase change, or gases to escape out of a liquid, or gases to condense. 

e.g.  Steam lines contain hot gaseous steam, but as this steam cools down, condensate(liquid water) starts forming. If water within a pipe gets hot some may boil (causes "boiler rumbling"). Carbonated drinks hold a lot gas when under pressure, when it's realized the gas/liquid separate. Air holds a fair bit of moisture, Increase it's pressure, or drop it's temperature and moisture will drop of it. Similar thing with natural gas.Slide21

liquid pockets can cause problems as slug of liquid can then be forced down the pipe at high speed. When it hits something, it's comes to a very quick stop. The liquid is effectively incompressible and so it's KE is converted into a VERY fast rise in pressure, and that can rupture the pipe/fitting (Water hammer).Slide22

Steam trap

A steam trap is a device used to discharge condensate and non condensable gases with a negligible consumption or loss of live steam. Most steam traps are nothing more than automatic 

valves. They open, close or modulate automatically. The three important functions of steam traps are:

Discharge condensate as soon as it is formed.Have a negligible steam consumption.

Have the capability of discharging air and other non-condensable gases.Slide23

Pipe Launcher

How to overcome the solidification problem in pipelines?Slide24

Smart PigSlide25

Smart PigSlide27

Smart Pig Inside the PipeSlide28

Magnetic sensor

Pipe wall

Pig bodySlide29

Pipe Expansion and SupportAny piping system must be fully supported, able to expand during operation and sufficiently flexible to allow movement as a result.

All pipes will be installed at ambient temperature. Pipes carrying hot fluids such as water or steam operate at higher temperatures.

It follows that they expand, especially in length, with an increase from ambient to working temperatures. This will create stress upon certain areas within the distribution system, such as pipe joints, which, in the extreme, could fracture. Slide31

Calculation of the amount of expansion

The amount of the expansion is readily calculated using Equations, or read from an appropriate chart.

Expansion coefficients (

α) (mm/m °C x 10

3) Slide32

A chart showing the expansion in various steel pipe lengths at various temperature differencesSlide33

The fixed or 'anchor' points

'A' provide a datum position from which expansion takes place.

The sliding support points 'B' allow free movement for expansion of the pipe work, while keeping the pipeline in alignment.The expansion device at point 'C'

is to accommodate the expansion and contraction of the pipe. Slide34

Pipe Support

Chair and roller

Chair roller and saddleSlide35

Expansion Fittings

Full loop

This is simply one complete turn of the pipe and, on steam pipe work, should preferably be fitted in a horizontal rather than a vertical position to prevent condensate accumulating on the upstream side.

1- Full loopSlide36

2- Horseshoe or lyre loop

Horseshoe or lyre loopSlide37

3- Expansion loops

Expansion loopSlide38

Expansion loop capacity for carbon steel pipesSlide41

4- Sliding joint

Sliding jointSlide42

5- Expansion bellows

Simple expansion bellows

An expansion bellows, has the advantage that it requires no packing as does the sliding joint type.Slide43

Expansion bellowsSlide44

Expansion bellowsSlide45

Bellows may incorporate limit rods, which limit over-compression and over-extension of the element.