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2 nd European Conference on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies

2 nd European Conference on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies PAPER SESSION 1: Alcohol – informing prevention and policy Law of Alcohol Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers SICAD

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2 nd European Conference on Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies






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2nd European Conference on Addictive Behaviours and DependenciesPAPER SESSION 1: Alcohol – informing prevention and policy Law of AlcoholTwo sides of the coin: consumers and retailers SICAD Serviço de Intervenção nos Comportamentos Aditivos e nas Dependências www.sicad.pt |TELEF: +351 211 119 000 | EMAIL: sicad@sicad.min-saude.pt Elsa Lavado, Lúcia Dias, Ludmila Carapinha, Vasco Calado Lisbon, 24 October 2017

2The research team works in the Portuguese governmental organization dedicated to the monitoring and intervention in addictive behaviours: General – Directorate for the Intervention in Addictive Behaviours and Dependencies

3Objectives Law of Alcohol. Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers In April of 2013, the Decree-Law 50/2013 changed the legal minimum age for spirituous beverages use, acquisition and possession from 16 to 18 and established that SICAD would do a study in a year and a half in order to evaluate the effects of this legislative change, namely among young people. limitations l egal imposition

4Objectives Law of Alcohol. Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers The study consists in a triangulation of direct and indirect indicators collected with the purpose of analyzing the implementation of the Decree-Law, with special attention to young people’s, and teenagers in particular, alcohol use patterns Decree-Law 50/2013: “a study (…) to assess alcohol use patterns by young people in general and by adolescents in particular.. . "

5Law of Alcohol. Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers Triangulation of direct and indirect indicators

6Law of Alcohol. Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers Triangulation of direct and indirect indicators

7Law of Alcohol. Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers Sample Mixed studies : qualitative and quantitative Target Population : young people and professionals of commercial establishments 5 cities : Lisboa, Porto, Coimbra, Évora, Faro young people : 10-24 years old Survey : N=1051 Interviews : N=25 Youth , Alcohol , and Law professionals of commercial establishments : coffeehouses , bars, nightclubs, supermarkets, caravans and petrol stations Survey : N=98 Interviews : N=25 Alcohol and the Law: Commercial Establishment Professionals

8Law of Alcohol. Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers Results young people L ack of information of existing legislation and a diffuse notion of recent legislative changes D espite some control practices, the law was not always respected: underage could get access to alcoholic beverages, namely in bars, discos and coffeehouses , using different avoidance strategies Y oung people approve the implement of some restrictive measures on access to alcohol, such as increasing the legal age limits, or lowering the drivers’ maximum legal BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration) T o have fun is the main motivation for alcohol use, although the need to meet social and peer pressures is also important T here is a clear perception of the risk associated with alcohol use, but this does not prevent some excesses and harmful behaviors. Devaluation of risks for oneself / overvaluation of others’ drinking patterns

9Law of Alcohol. Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers Results professionals of comercial establishments There is a perception of general difficulty in complying with the law in terms of the legal age limits. M ain reasons cited: ▪ difficulties in identifying the drinkers’ age ▪ the strategies adopted by underage in connivance with young adults ▪ lack of enforcement ▪ lack of knowledge of the law ▪ commercial interests K nowledge of the law : there is a training deficit, according to commercial shops professionals, although they have recently received information L aw enforcement : perception of inefficiency

10 Law of Alcohol. Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers spirit of the law not internalized(supply and demand) Changing alcohol use patterns not verified Less associated problems not verified Changes in availability and perceived accessibility n ot verified P erception of law enforcement slightly effective Knowledge of the law and legislative changes poor interiorization Social norms favorable to the consumption of alcoholic beverages enforcement is seen as ineffective by young people and professionals legislative change has not resulted in lower youth consumption or a reduction in associated problems (particularly in adolescents ) Results

11 Law of Alcohol. Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers Recommendations implement more restrictive measuresin particular regarding access to alcohol by underage, with the express approval of young people and professionals in commercial establishments reinforcing and investing in preventive and dissuasive strategies for early consumption and harmful consumption young people, professionals and parents, in order to promote the knowledge and internalization of what’s stipulated by law and its application to monitor legislative changes with information and publicity campaigns namely targeting young people who are starting to drink alcoholic beverages privileging / investing in risk reduction and harm minimization strategies in nightlife contexts especially targeting recreational setting and professionals of establishments, in order to increase and guarantee the internalization of risk perceptions

12Law of Alcohol. Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers Recommendations to guarantee the increase and the visibility of inspection actions in commercial establishments selling alcoholic beverages make a serious educational investment in the accountability of all the actors to create favorable conditions for the identification card application namely related to the issue of the purchase of alcohol by underage (due to its specificity, it is worth noting the need for greater supervision with supermarkets and hypermarkets) on the assumption that it is the change of mentalities that leads to the change of the behaviors to become an internalized and compulsory practice in case of doubt of the age or state of the client's drunkenness

13Law of Alcohol. Two sides of the coin: consumers and retailers Increase legal minimum age to 18 for ALL alcoholic beverages New legislation «This study [from SICAD] shows that, in terms of the consumption and sale of alcoholic beverages to underage in public places, there is still a high level of risk and excess consumption, among the younger population. Indeed, it has been observed that there were no relevant changes in the pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverages by young people in the year following the entry into force of the mentioned legislative changes, either in terms of the type of drinks consumed or in terms of harmful use » Decree-Law 106/2015, June 16th

14Research TeamCoordination: Carla RibeiroElsa Lavado, Lúcia Dias, Ludmila Carapinha, Vasco Calado The research team wishes to thank to: - To all the young people who agreed to collaborate in this work, making their time and experience available - Colleagues from SICADThank you for your attention elsa.lavado@sicad.min-saude.pt lucia.dias@sicad.min-saude.ptludmila.carapinha@sicad.min-saude.ptvasco.calado@sicad.min-saude.pt www.sicad.pt