THE LIFE OF MARTIN LUTHER…

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THE LIFE OF MARTIN LUTHER…




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THE LIFE OF MARTIN LUTHER…

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Birth of Luther

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Early Life

Went to study law.Got caught in a thunderstorm and vowed to dedicate his life to God.

Joined the Order of Hermits of St. Augustine.

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Journey to Rome in 1510.

Developed many criticisms while there of the Church.Ex. Selling of indulgences, brothels for clerics, purgatory lessens as view relics

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Sin and Salvation

Plagued with his own sense of sinfulness against the perfect righteousness of God.

To be righteous, trust in Jesus Christ (Sola Fide) “faith alone.”

Good works and charity should be done, but were not the basis for one’s salvation.

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Attack on Indulgences

“Works of satisfaction” such as praying, fasting, pilgrimages, almsgiving for penitents.

Sixtus

IV made indulgences available to those already in purgatory.

Leo X issued the Plenary Indulgence to gather funds for the building of St. Peter’s Basilica.

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John Tetzel

Extraordinary indulgence-selling priest.

When Luther heard that Tetzel was mortally ill and on his deathbed, he wrote to comfort him, and bade him "not to be troubled, for the matter did not begin on his account, but the child had quite a different father."

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Luther- 95 Theses

95 Complaints about church doctrine nailed to the church door in Wittenberg in 1517.

"Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial." - #82

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Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for their own families, and by no means to squander it on indulgences. -#46

Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying indulgences. -#43

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Key Themes

Why was Luther’s message so powerful?

Why did the peasants blindly purchase indulgences?

What did he hope to accomplish by his criticisms?

What actions were a direct threat to Roman doctrine and traditional teachings?

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Printing Press

Made the works of Luther readily available to the masses.

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Charles V

Ruler of the Holy Roman Empire

Was placed in charge of dealing with Luther

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Frederick of Saxony- supporter of Martin Luther

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Research Paper

Due October 2

nd

.

Research paper due on Martin Luther and whether he was a reformer or revolutionary.

7-10 pages

Chicago-Style Formatting

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Letter to Pope Leo X

September 6, 1518 It has come to my attention that I am accused of great indiscretion, said to be my great fault, in which, it is said, I have not spared even your person. I beg you to give me a hearing after I have vindicated myself by this letter; and believe me when I say that I have never thought ill of you personally. I have truly despised your see, the Roman Curia, which, however neither you nor anyone else can deny is more corrupt than any Babylon or Sodom ever was, and which, as far as I can see, is characterized by a completely depraved hopeless and notorious godlessness. I have been thoroughly incensed over the fact that good Christians are mocked in your name and under the cloak of the Roman church. I have always been sorry, most excellent Leo, that you were made pope in these times, for you are worthy of being pope in better days. So far have I been from raving against your person that I even hoped I might gain your favor and save you if I should make a strong and stinging assault upon that prison, that veritable hell of yours. So I come, most blessed father, and prostrate before you, pray that if possible you intervene and stop those flatterers, who are the enemies of peace while they pretend to keep peace. But let no person imagine that I will recant unless he prefer to involve the whole question in even greater turmoil. Furthermore, I acknowledge no fixed rules for the interpretation of the Word of God, since the Word of God, which teaches freedom in all other matters, must not be bound. Perhaps, I am presumptuous in trying to instruct so exalted a personage from whom we all should learn and from whom, the thrones of judges receive their decisions, as those pestilential fellows of yours boast. But I do not consider it absurd if I now forget your exalted office and do what brotherly love demands. May the Lord Jesus preserve you forever, Amen.

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Leipzig,1519

Luther debated Catholic doctrine against John Eck

Sovereign authority of Scripture, challenged papal infallibility, church council inconsistencies.

Defended John Huss who had been condemned to death for heresy at the Council of Constance

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John Eck vs. Martin Luther

“I am surprised at the humility and modesty with which the reverend doctor undertakes to oppose, alone, so many illustrious Fathers, and pretends to know more than the sovereign pontiffs, the councils, the doctors, and the universities! . . . It would be surprising, no doubt, if God had hidden the truth from so many saints and martyrs — until the advent of the reverend father!”

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Leo X’s Papal Bull

“Arise of Lord, a wild boar has invaded thy vineyard.”Luther excommunicated in 1521.

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Diet of Worms 1521

Challenged the pope’s infallibility, inconsistencies of Church councils.

“ I cannot recant. Here I stand, I can do no other.”

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Other Luther Writings

Address to the

Christian Nobility of the German Nation-

urged princes to push for reform against the Church.

Babylonian Captivity of the Church

- attacked the 7 sacraments, only 2 necessary: baptism and Eucharist

Freedom of a Christian

- salvation by faith alone.

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Wartburg Castle

Hidden for 1 year where he translated the Bible into German.

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Homework

Read the Edict of Worms & Address to Christian Nobility

Complete the Point of View Sheets

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Homework

Read the German Peasants Revolt on pg. 363.Answer the 3 questions associated with the primary source document.

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