The periodic table Chapter 4 and 11 (the parts we didn’t get to last test)

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The periodic table Chapter 4 and 11 (the parts we didn’t get to last test) - Description

What is the periodic table?. periodic- a regular repeating pattern. periodic table- arrangement of elements so that their physical and chemical properties follow a regular repeating pattern. Rows and columns. ID: 708149 Download Presentation

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The periodic table Chapter 4 and 11 (the parts we didn’t get to last test)




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Presentations text content in The periodic table Chapter 4 and 11 (the parts we didn’t get to last test)

Slide1

The periodic table

Chapter 4 and 11 (the parts we didn’t get to last test)

Slide2

What is the periodic table?

periodic- a regular repeating pattern

periodic table- arrangement of elements so that their physical and chemical properties follow a regular repeating pattern

Slide3

Rows and columns

groups or families- columns (vertical)

period- rows (horizontal)

everything in a group shows similar properties

Slide4

Why properties repeat?

physical and chemical properties are mainly affected by valence electrons.

Everything in the same column will always have the same number of valence electrons.

Slide5

History of the Periodic Table

Slide6

Dmitri Mendeleev

Element #101 was named in his honor

first to come up with a periodic table

~1870 there were 63 elements known to man, he organized the elements in order of their atomic mass, he saw a pattern form with the # of elements that can be bonded to that element.

Slide7

More Mendeleev

The pattern has to do with the valence electrons

He arranged his table so that columns of elements with the same valence electrons formed, he left spaces in his table where it appeared an element wasn’t discovered yet

He even predicted the properties of these elements by looking at the other elements in the family and period of that element

Slide8

Medeleev’s Table

Slide9

It may not sound like much, but…

He

predicted

what

undiscovered

elements would be like giving specifics!!!

And he was

Right!

Neither Nostradamus nor any psychic hotline can claim that!

All holes have been filled in (three while he was still alive) and his predictions came out pretty close

Slide10

1871 Discovery

Property

Ekaaluminum (Mendeleev’s prediction)

Gallium

atomic mass

68

69.72

density (g/cm³)

6.0

5.904

melting point (°C)

Low

29.78

oxide's formula

Ea

2

O

3

(density - 5.5 g cm

-3

)

(soluble in both alkalis and acids)

Ga

2

O

3

(density - 5.88 g cm

-3

)

(soluble in both alkalis and acids)

chloride's formula

Ea

2

Cl

6

(volatile)

Ga

2

Cl

6

(volatile)

Slide11

1882 Discovery

Property

Ekasilicon

Germanium

atomic mass

72

72.61

density (g/cm³)

5.5

5.35

melting point (°C)

high

947

color

grey

grey

oxide type

refractory dioxide

refractory dioxide

oxide density (g/cm³)

4.7

4.7

oxide activity

feebly basic

feebly basic

chloride boiling point

under 100°C

86°C (GeCl

4

)

chloride density (g/cm³)

1.9

1.9

Slide12

Dmitri Mendeleev

Slide13

Problem with Mendeleev’s table

Mendeleev arranged his table by

atomic mass

a few elements appeared to be slightly out of place, Mendeleev put them in the right place and guessed that their atomic masses were incorrectly measured

Actually, he was arranging them by the wrong number.

Slide14

Henry Moseley ~1910

Discovered atomic number (# of protons of an atom)

He rearranged the periodic table by this number and it fell into perfect order

-Mendeleev’s table worked because as the number of protons increase the atomic mass should increase, however if there are fewer neutrons it could decrease

Slide15

Henry Moseley

Slide16

Periodic Law

The periodic law states that physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers

In other words, when the elements are arranged by their atomic numbers you should see chemical and physical properties repeating themselves

Slide17


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