What, to you, is a reasonable size for a city? What’s too big? Too small? Why?. Who should decide how cities look, function, and/or grow?. Standards. · 8.H.3.1 Explain how migration and. immigration contributed to the development. ID: 636877
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Would you rather live in the city or the country? Why?
What, to you, is a reasonable size for a city? What’s too big? Too small? Why?
Who should decide how cities look, function, and/or grow?Slide2
· 8.H.3.1 Explain how migration and
immigration contributed to the development
of North Carolina and the United States
colonization to contemporary times
· 8.H.3.2 Explain how changes
by technology and other
individuals and groups in North
Carolina and the United States.Slide3
Increase in the number of cities and the people living in them
Second Urban Revolution
prompted by second revolution in agriculture
Cities – fundamental reason for existence was to simply assemble, fabricate & distribute manufactured goodsUrban Sprawl – unrestricted growth of housing, commercial developments and roadsSlide5
Industrialization- Shock Cities
Advantages of Cities
Job opportunities? Opportunities for women? Money? Education? Entertainment? What is rural-to-urban migration?
Factories & service industries
Women’s opportunities increased
Domestic servants, teachers, secretaries
Saving money – Why?
Education for childrenENTERTAINMENT: Theaters, social clubs, museumsRURAL-to-URBAN MIGRATION: Farmers/Rural Americans move to citiesSlide7
GROWTH OF URBANIZATION
Cities grew rapidly
near raw materials
Opportunities in the job market.
Poor sanitary and living conditions
Migration from Country to Cities
Farm technology decreases need for laborers; people move to cities
Many African Americans in South lose their livelihood
1890–1910, move to cities in North, West to escape racial violence
Find segregation, discrimination in North too
Competition for jobs between blacks, white immigrants causes tension
The move to factory work was hard on farmers because they now had to face a boss’s restrictions and rules and be confined to a factory and not be outdoors.Slide9
Urban Technological Improvements
Key inventions? Inventors? What problems did they solve?
Safety Elevator (Elisha Otis)
Electric streetcars (cleaner, quieter)
Engineers Build Skyward
= 10 story and taller buildings that had steel frames.
Provided office space for cities that had no more room left on the ground.
= Developed safety elevator that would not fall if the lifting rope broke.
The American Institute of Architecture-1857
Required education and licensing to become and architect.
Built schools, libraries, train stations, residents and office buildings.Slide11Slide12
George Fuller – Sky ScrapersSlide13Slide14
Building the SubwaySlide15
Electricity and Mass Transit
Electric street cars were reliable and could carry more people than horse carts.
Electric cable cars did have problems:
The cables used to run the cars could block fire trucks, and traffic congestion blocked them from running on schedule.
Boston = first subway system in 1897. NYC followed in 1904.
for those who could afford transit fares away from the city.Slide16Slide17
Issues of Urban Living
Major problems? What are tenements? What were the living conditions?
Overcrowding, poverty, poor sanitation
Low-cost, multi-family housing
Poor water quality, potential for fire, overcrowding
Dangerous streets, crime, tension between urban groups (gangs)Slide18
THE EXPANDING CITY
AND ITS PROBLEMS
Expansion of industry was main cause of urban growth
1890: one person in three lived in a city
1910: nearly one in two
Increasing proportion of urban population was immigrantsSlide19
= Low cost multifamily housing designed to fit in as many families as possible.
Tenements were not clean, had little windows, poor ventilation, and were dangerous.Slide20
As cities grew, sewer and water facilities could not keep up
Fire protection became increasingly inadequate
Garbage piled up in streets
Streets crumbled under increased traffic
Housing was inadequate and encouraged disease and disintegration of family life
FAMILY IN ATTIC WITH DRYING LAUNDRY, 1900-1910
Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company CollectionSlide21
Urban Living ConditionsSlide22
97 Orchard Street, NY
Orchard Street, NYSlide23
Tenement Museum in NYSlide24Slide25Slide26
Inside a tenement house!Slide27
Another view of a tenement housing complex!Slide28Slide29Slide30Slide31Slide32
Water and Sanitation
1860s cities have inadequate or no piped water, indoor plumbing rare
Filtration introduced 1870s, chlorination in 1908
Streets: manure, open gutters, factory smoke, poor trash collection
Contractors hired to sweep streets, collect garbage, clean outhouses-------often do not do job properly
By 1900, cities develop sewer lines, create sanitation departmentsSlide33Slide34
Fire and Crime
As population grows, thieves flourish
Early police forces too small to be effective
Fire hazards: limited water, wood houses, candles, kerosene heaters
Most firefighters volunteers, not always available
1900, most cities have full-time, professional fire departments
Fire sprinklers, non-flammable building materials make cities saferSlide35Slide36Slide37
1871 Chicago fire killed nearly 300 people and left more than 100,000 homeless.
Police officers in 1900s.Slide38
The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
How did this event force reform in the workplace?
Max Blank and Isaac Harris, owners of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company
The Owners were indicted on April 11th in the death of Margaret Schwartz, a worker in the factory. The trial began 8 months later only to finish in 18 days. On December 27th factory owners were acquitted of responsibility. Three years later 23 individual suits were settled at a rate of $75 per death.
City Planners start to control growth
As cities grew, architectural firms expanded to offer city planning services to make cities more functional and beautiful.
Cities were zoned for different uses. (residential, industrial and financial)
Parks, boulevards, buildings and electric street lights were a few of the new developments.
Frederick Law Olmstead
= Designed Philadelphia’s Fairmount Park, NYC’s Central Park, and similar parks in Detroit, Washington D.C., and California.Slide40Slide41
These characteristics and issues of urbanization caused…
… These cultural trends in America during the Gilded Age…Slide42
How did lifestyles change? How available did goods become?
What new amenities emerged?
People buying more goods than ever (increase in consumerism)
Purchasing goods for the purpose of impressing others
People are able to buy more than they ever have in the past
People now working for wages (instead of on farms)
Department stores, advertising, mail-order catalogsSlide43Slide44
1902 Sears Roebuck CatalogSlide45
- when household items, food, preferences are the same from house to house in a given place.
Mass Culture Boom
What is it? How was it spread? Who were some key people in it?
Similar cultural patterns in a society
by transportation, communication, & advertising
Literature criticized society – Mark Twain & Horatio Alger
Compulsory schools, increased literacy rate
College for women and African AmericansSlide47
Rowland H. Macy = opened one of the first department stores in N.Y. in 1858 and it became the largest in America.
Methods used = advertising, goods organized into departments, and high quality goods for fair prices.
New concepts at other stores = money back guarantee, newspaper advertisements, lower shipping rates, distinctive logos, and long distance shipping.Slide48
The first Macy’s in New York City
Rowland H. MacySlide49Slide50Slide51
Helped create mass culture.
Between 1870-1900 newspapers increased from 600 to more than 1600.
Believed it was his job to inform people and stir up controversy.
Included comics, exposure of political corruption, sports and illustrations.
William Randolph Hearst- Morning Journal. Competitor to Joseph Pulitzer. Special interest newspapers soon began to spring up in ethnic neighborhoods as well.Slide52
Literacy rate rose to about 90% in 1900.
More schools being built for children.
Science, woodworking, drafting, civics, business training, English.
- new methods of teaching that allowed students to answer their own questions.
Higher education institutions became specialized to train in urban careers.
Teaching, social work, and nursing were some of the new careers.
Led to an advancement in women’s colleges.Slide53Slide54
What were the new types of entertainment? What event, shows, and spectator sports emerged?
Amusement parks, performances, events
Theatres, shows, motion pictures (Nickelodeons)
Spectator sports – baseball, horse racing, boxing, football, basketballSlide55
1884= First Roller Coaster (Lamarcus Thompson)
First ride to open at Coney Island.
Parks offered a new getaway for people who would otherwise go on a picnic for a daily adventure.Slide56Slide57
Jefferson Theater, CASlide58