Warm-up 1/16/14 Would you rather live in the city or the country? Why?
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Warm-up 1/16/14 Would you rather live in the city or the country? Why?

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Warm-up 1/16/14 Would you rather live in the city or the country? Why?




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Presentation on theme: "Warm-up 1/16/14 Would you rather live in the city or the country? Why?"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Warm-up 1/16/14

Would you rather live in the city or the country? Why?

What, to you, is a reasonable size for a city? What’s too big? Too small? Why?

Who should decide how cities look, function, and/or grow?

Slide2

Standards

· 8.H.3.1 Explain how migration and

immigration contributed to the development

of North Carolina and the United States

from

colonization to contemporary times

.

· 8.H.3.2 Explain how changes

brought

about

by technology and other

innovations affected

individuals and groups in North

Carolina and the United States.

Slide3

Increase in the number of cities and the people living in them

Urbanization

Slide4

Industrialization

Second Urban Revolution

prompted by second revolution in agriculture

Increased urbanization

Industrial

Cities – fundamental reason for existence was to simply assemble, fabricate & distribute manufactured goodsUrban Sprawl – unrestricted growth of housing, commercial developments and roads

Slide5

Industrialization- Shock Cities

Manchester, England

1750

15,000

1801

70,000

1861

500,000

1911

2,300,000

Chicago

1850

30,000

1880

500,000

1900

1,700,000

1930

3,300,000

Slide6

Advantages of Cities

Job opportunities? Opportunities for women? Money? Education? Entertainment? What is rural-to-urban migration?

JOBS:

Factories & service industries

WOMEN:

Women’s opportunities increased

Domestic servants, teachers, secretaries

MONEY:

Saving money – Why?

EDUCATION:

Education for childrenENTERTAINMENT: Theaters, social clubs, museumsRURAL-to-URBAN MIGRATION: Farmers/Rural Americans move to cities

Slide7

GROWTH OF URBANIZATION

Cities grew rapidly

near raw materials

industrial areas

transportation routes.

Opportunities in the job market.

Terrible Conditions

Poor sanitary and living conditions

Tenement apartments

Sweathouses

Slide8

Migration from Country to Cities

Farm technology decreases need for laborers; people move to cities

Many African Americans in South lose their livelihood

1890–1910, move to cities in North, West to escape racial violence

Find segregation, discrimination in North too

Competition for jobs between blacks, white immigrants causes tension

The move to factory work was hard on farmers because they now had to face a boss’s restrictions and rules and be confined to a factory and not be outdoors.

Slide9

Urban Technological Improvements

Key inventions? Inventors? What problems did they solve?

Skyscrapers (overcrowding)

Safety Elevator (Elisha Otis)

Electric streetcars (cleaner, quieter)

Subways (overcrowding)

Slide10

Engineers Build Skyward

Skyscrapers

= 10 story and taller buildings that had steel frames.

Provided office space for cities that had no more room left on the ground.

Elisha Otis

= Developed safety elevator that would not fall if the lifting rope broke.

The American Institute of Architecture-1857

Required education and licensing to become and architect.

Built schools, libraries, train stations, residents and office buildings.

Slide11

Slide12

George Fuller – Sky Scrapers

Slide13

Slide14

Building the Subway

Slide15

Electricity and Mass Transit

Electric street cars were reliable and could carry more people than horse carts.

Electric cable cars did have problems:

The cables used to run the cars could block fire trucks, and traffic congestion blocked them from running on schedule.

Boston = first subway system in 1897. NYC followed in 1904.

Growth of

suburbs

for those who could afford transit fares away from the city.

Slide16

Slide17

Issues of Urban Living

Major problems? What are tenements? What were the living conditions?

MAJOR PROBLEMS:

Overcrowding, poverty, poor sanitation

TENEMENTS:

Low-cost, multi-family housing

LIVING CONDITIONS:

Poor water quality, potential for fire, overcrowding

OTHER PROBLEMS:

Dangerous streets, crime, tension between urban groups (gangs)

Slide18

THE EXPANDING CITY

AND ITS PROBLEMS

Urban problems

Housing

Public health

Crime

Immorality

Expansion of industry was main cause of urban growth

1890: one person in three lived in a city

1910: nearly one in two

Increasing proportion of urban population was immigrants

Slide19

Housing Conditions

Tenements

= Low cost multifamily housing designed to fit in as many families as possible.

Tenements were not clean, had little windows, poor ventilation, and were dangerous.

Slide20

TEEMING TENEMENTS

As cities grew, sewer and water facilities could not keep up

Fire protection became increasingly inadequate

Garbage piled up in streets

Streets crumbled under increased traffic

Housing was inadequate and encouraged disease and disintegration of family life

FAMILY IN ATTIC WITH DRYING LAUNDRY, 1900-1910

Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection

Slide21

Urban Living Conditions

Slide22

http://www.tenement.org/education_lessonplans.html

http://www.tenement.org/immigrate/

97 Orchard Street, NY

Orchard Street, NY

Slide23

From the

Tenement Museum in NY

Slide24

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Slide26

Inside a tenement house!

Slide27

Another view of a tenement housing complex!

Slide28

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Slide32

Water and Sanitation

Water

1860s cities have inadequate or no piped water, indoor plumbing rare

Filtration introduced 1870s, chlorination in 1908

Sanitation

Streets: manure, open gutters, factory smoke, poor trash collection

Contractors hired to sweep streets, collect garbage, clean outhouses-------often do not do job properly

By 1900, cities develop sewer lines, create sanitation departments

Slide33

Slide34

Fire and Crime

Crime

As population grows, thieves flourish

Early police forces too small to be effective

Fire

Fire hazards: limited water, wood houses, candles, kerosene heaters

Most firefighters volunteers, not always available

1900, most cities have full-time, professional fire departments

Fire sprinklers, non-flammable building materials make cities safer

Slide35

Slide36

Slide37

1871 Chicago fire killed nearly 300 people and left more than 100,000 homeless.

Police officers in 1900s.

Slide38

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory

How did this event force reform in the workplace?

Max Blank and Isaac Harris, owners of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company

The Owners were indicted on April 11th in the death of Margaret Schwartz, a worker in the factory.  The trial began 8 months later only to finish in 18 days.  On December 27th  factory owners were acquitted of responsibility.  Three years later 23 individual suits were settled at a rate of $75 per death.

Slide39

City Planners start to control growth

As cities grew, architectural firms expanded to offer city planning services to make cities more functional and beautiful.

Cities were zoned for different uses. (residential, industrial and financial)

Parks, boulevards, buildings and electric street lights were a few of the new developments.

Frederick Law Olmstead

= Designed Philadelphia’s Fairmount Park, NYC’s Central Park, and similar parks in Detroit, Washington D.C., and California.

Slide40

Slide41

These characteristics and issues of urbanization caused…

… These cultural trends in America during the Gilded Age…

Slide42

Conspicuous Consumerism

How did lifestyles change? How available did goods become?

What new amenities emerged?

People buying more goods than ever (increase in consumerism)

Purchasing goods for the purpose of impressing others

People are able to buy more than they ever have in the past

People now working for wages (instead of on farms)

NEW AMENITIES:

Department stores, advertising, mail-order catalogs

Slide43

Slide44

1902 Sears Roebuck Catalog

Slide45

Mass Culture

Mass Culture

- when household items, food, preferences are the same from house to house in a given place.

Newspapers

Literature

Education

Slide46

Mass Culture Boom

What is it? How was it spread? Who were some key people in it?

WHAT?:

Similar cultural patterns in a society

SPREAD

by transportation, communication, & advertising

WHO?:

Literature criticized society – Mark Twain & Horatio Alger

Compulsory schools, increased literacy rate

College for women and African Americans

Slide47

Advertising

Rowland H. Macy = opened one of the first department stores in N.Y. in 1858 and it became the largest in America.

Methods used = advertising, goods organized into departments, and high quality goods for fair prices.

New concepts at other stores = money back guarantee, newspaper advertisements, lower shipping rates, distinctive logos, and long distance shipping.

Slide48

The first Macy’s in New York City

Rowland H. Macy

Slide49

Slide50

Slide51

Newspapers

Helped create mass culture.

Between 1870-1900 newspapers increased from 600 to more than 1600.

Joseph Pulitzer

-

The World

and the

Evening World.

Believed it was his job to inform people and stir up controversy.

Included comics, exposure of political corruption, sports and illustrations.

William Randolph Hearst- Morning Journal. Competitor to Joseph Pulitzer. Special interest newspapers soon began to spring up in ethnic neighborhoods as well.

Slide52

Education

Literacy rate rose to about 90% in 1900.

More schools being built for children.

Science, woodworking, drafting, civics, business training, English.

John Dewey

- new methods of teaching that allowed students to answer their own questions.

Higher education institutions became specialized to train in urban careers.

Teaching, social work, and nursing were some of the new careers.

Led to an advancement in women’s colleges.

Slide53

Slide54

New Entertainment

What were the new types of entertainment? What event, shows, and spectator sports emerged?

Amusement parks, performances, events

Theatres, shows, motion pictures (Nickelodeons)

Spectator sports – baseball, horse racing, boxing, football, basketball

Slide55

Amusement Parks

1884= First Roller Coaster (Lamarcus Thompson)

First ride to open at Coney Island.

Parks offered a new getaway for people who would otherwise go on a picnic for a daily adventure.

Slide56

Slide57

Coney Island

Jefferson Theater, CA

Slide58