Chapter 13 Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence
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Chapter 13 Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence

Chapter 13. Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence. Presentation Overview. The Use of Multimedia. Creating Digital Media. Creating Multimedia. Artificial Intelligence. The Use of Multimedia. Multimedia Web Pages.

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Chapter 13 Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence




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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Chapter 13 Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence

Chapter 13

Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence

Slide2

Presentation Overview

The Use of Multimedia

Creating Digital Media

Creating Multimedia

Artificial Intelligence

Slide3

The Use of Multimedia

Multimedia Web Pages

Flash and Shockwave are the leading sources of Web movies and games.

Shockwave is a more intensive format.

Flash is faster and commonly used for more cartoon-like imagery.

Both provide fast, easily created movies that transmit over the Internet as part of a Web page.

Slide4

The Use of Multimedia

Educational Tools

Schools and colleges use online courses as a valuable teaching medium.

Online courses incorporate sound, images, and videos within a text framework.

Multimedia tutorials are helpful for special education students because the materials are presented in various forms.

Slide5

The Use of Multimedia

Computer Games

About 68 percent of Americans play some type of computer game on a regular basis.

Game consoles rival personal computers for power and are priced under $300.

Online games involve thousands of players and enable them to chat, have adventures, and interact in worlds that only exist inside a computer.

Slide6

The Use of Multimedia

Computer Games

Multimedia PCs are the most costly and high-powered computers on the consumer market.

Running a game makes a computer work harder than any other task because it requires fast 3D video, sound, and networking—often all at once.

Slide7

The Use of Multimedia

Online Gaming Terminology

Slide8

Creating Digital Media

The process of taking analog data, such as a human voice, and turning it into a data file on a disk is called

digitizing

.

Digital media

collectively refers to digital copies of any form of media.

The main advantage of digital media versus analog data is that it can be reproduced an infinite number of times with no degradation of quality.

Slide9

Creating Digital Media

Painting and Drawing Programs

A

bitmap-based graphics program

allows users to create pictures by changing the pixels on the screen from white to black.

A

vector-based graphics program

enables users to construct pictures by creating, editing, and combining mathematically defined geometric shapes.

Slide10

Creating Digital Media

Commonly Used Standard Graphics File Formats

Slide11

Creating Digital Media

Graphics File Formats

A

native format

is a format that is specific to that application.

Saving a graphic in a standard file format is called

exporting

the graphic.

Placing a graphic in standard file format into another document or file is called

importing

the graphic.

Slide12

Creating Digital Media

Graphics File Formats

A

bitmap

is the simplest form of an image file.

It will draw a perfect image without any of the guesswork of a compressed file.

However, it takes up a lot of space.

In

data compression

, a conversion program can “compress” a bitmap image into another file format that looks almost as good, and requires less file space.

Slide13

Creating Digital Media

Data CompressionShown here are a compressed bitmap file (left) and an uncompressed bitmap file (right) of the same image.

Slide14

Creating Digital Media

Vector Graphics

A

vector graphic

stores an image as a series of geometric shapes.

Vector graphics are useful for line drawings, but cannot reproduce a detailed image such as a human face.

Slide15

Creating Digital Media

Vector Graphics

A

wireframe diagram

can use three-dimensional techniques to show the underlying structure of a three-dimensional object on a two-dimensional surface.

Bitmaps called

textures

can then be drawn on top of the many facets of this diagram to make it look real.

Slide16

Creating Digital Media

Clip Art Images

Clip art images are sizable icon-like images that can be inserted into the text of reports and Web pages to liven them up.

Clip art tends to be somewhat generic.

The images are normally stored in GIF file format, allowing for limited animation.

Slide17

Creating Digital Media

Raster Image Editing

Adobe Photoshop and Corel Paint Shop Pro can edit digitized photographs.

Digitized photographs are stored as

raster images

—collections of black, white, or colored pixels.

The most common raster image file format for digitized photos is the Tag Image File Format (TIF or TIFF).

Slide18

Creating Digital Media

3D Modeling Programs

A

3D modeling program

can make a computer screen appear to have depth.

Working with these programs requires the combined talents of an artist and an advanced computer user.

These programs require enormous computing power.

Slide19

Creating Digital Media

Computer Animation

More and more movies are made with the aid of

computer graphic special effects (CG FX)

, which allow user to draw computer-animated graphics.

It is far cheaper to create computer-animated graphics that to use traditional techniques.

Animated graphics are easily manipulated—any image can be redrawn until it is just right.

Slide20

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing SoundThe sound of someone singing is captured by sampling the sound and then storing the measurements in binary form for use by the computer.

Slide21

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Sound

Wave files

record any kind of sound by storing masses of binary numbers and measuring exactly how much voltage to send out to the speakers each fraction of a second in order to reproduce the sound.

Sound files can become quite large because 16 bits are used for each measurement.

Slide22

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Sound

The

Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)

technique digitally simulates musical instruments.

It only needs to know which notes to play on each musical instrument.

MIDI files tend to reproduce poorly on PCs and are used less frequently then they were a few years ago.

Slide23

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Sound

The

MP3 file format

takes a wave file and reduces it by 90 percent, leaving behind a high-quality reproduction.

It uses a data compression system that works in a similar fashion to that used by the JPEG or GIF formats.

There has been an explosion in the use of this file format because of the dramatic reduction in size with very little loss in quality.

Slide24

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Video

Digital Movies

Digital video will eventually replace analog video.

Movie Compression Techniques

The

MPEG file format

is the movie equivalent of an MP3.

Home DVD players use the

MPEG2 file format

.

The

MOV file format

is an Apple format.

The

AVI file format

is an older file format.

Flash

is the format of movies on the Internet.

Slide25

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Video

Digital Cable

The move to digital television was completed in the U.S. in June 2009, prompting many users to switch to digital cable.

Digital cable offers a wide selection of stations, with the ability to expand to 2,000.

It also provides easily accessible information buttons and scheduling data.

Slide26

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Video

Digital Video Recorder

A

digital video recorder (DVR)

operates as a digital TV cable box and can also perform the job of HDTV support.

The DVR records TV on a hard drive inside the box.

It provides the ability to pause and rewind live TV.

Slide27

Creating Digital Media

High-Definition Television

High-definition television (HDTV)

is television with more lines and more pixels than analog television—in other words, higher resolution.

HDTVs are offered in a variety of models, including 720i, 720p, 1080i, and 1080p.

The number stands for the resolution.

The

i

or p represents how the lines are drawn— interlaced or progressive.

Slide28

Creating Multimedia

What are the steps in creating a multimedia work?

Planning the work

Creating the elements to be included in the work

Combining the elements to create the work

Testing, evaluating, and refining the work

Writing the work to a portable storage medium such as a CD-ROM, or posting it to the Web

Slide29

Creating Multimedia

Planning a Multimedia Work

In

sequential, page-based multimedia

, the work is a sequence of pages or slides appearing one after the other.

This is appropriate for any application in which the presentation order of the material is fixed.

In

hypertext, page-based multimedia

, the work is a set of pages with links that can be followed at will.

A

tree diagram

is usually used to plan hypertext.

Slide30

Creating Multimedia

Tree Diagram for Hypertext Page-Based MultimediaThis tree diagram shows the links between pages in a simple multimedia presentation.

Slide31

Creating Multimedia

Planning a Multimedia Work

In

movie-based multimedia

, the work is a movie, or series of movies, that stops from time to time, enabling users to follow links.

A

storyboard

, consisting of sketches of the pages or frames as they will appear in the work, is usually created to plan movie-based multimedia.

Slide32

Creating Multimedia

Creating the Content of the Work

Content for a multimedia work can come from many different sources.

Text can be created in a word-processing program.

Graphics can be created in painting, drawing, 3D modeling, or animation programs.

Images can be produced by traditional means and scanned and edited in a graphics program.

Programs such as Adobe

Soundbooth

are available for capturing and editing sounds.

Slide33

Creating Multimedia

Hardware/Software for Creating Multimedia

A

sound digitizing card

enables computers to capture and process digitized sounds.

A

video digitizing card

allows users to capture and digitize video images and sound.

Video editing software

allows users to edit sounds and video and output in various digital formats.

Slide34

Creating Multimedia

Combining the Elements

The simplest multimedia works are documents produced using standard office software such as word processors or presentation programs.

More complex works can be produced by using Adobe Acrobat to incorporate pages created in other applications into PDF files.

The most sophisticated works are created in authoring programs such as Adobe Director.

Slide35

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI)

is the computer application that has fueled the continual effort to create faster and more powerful machines.

The goal of AI is to develop computers that can perform functions normally reserved for humans: thinking, talking, seeing, feeling, walking, and learning from their mistakes.

Slide36

Artificial Intelligence

AI Technology Trends

AI development is moving toward limited, focused applications.

Modern AI systems focus on simulating specialized human functions.

The goal of AI has shifted to augmenting human capabilities rather than supplanting them.

Slide37

Artificial Intelligence

Applications of Artificial IntelligenceThe three primary areas of artificial intelligence applicationsCognitive scienceNatural interfacesRobotics

Slide38

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

The study and simulation of the human mind is known as

cognitive science

.

It is based on biology, neurology, psychology, and other disciplines.

It focuses on researching how the human brain thinks and learns.

Major applications in this area are intelligent agents, expert systems, data mining, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and neural networks.

Slide39

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

An

intelligent agent

is an intuitive assistant that can utilize knowledge based on past experience and predictions of future behavior to assist computer users.

The agent’s goal is to reduce difficult tasks down to a few mouse clicks.

The best-known agents are the wizards found in Microsoft Office products.

Slide40

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

An

expert system

attempts to embody human expertise in a particular field.

Authorities in a field of study develop expert systems with the help of a

knowledge engineer

, a special type of programmer who specializes in building a knowledge base consisting of a set of rules.

An

inference engine

enables the expert system to draw deductions from the rules in the knowledge base in response to user input.

Slide41

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

Data mining

finds new ways to use masses of data stored in the databases of large corporations.

It sorts existing data to provide more carefully targeted marketing and pricing of products.

It is able to determine with good accuracy whether a new offering will succeed or fail.

Slide42

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

Genetic algorithms

apply a Darwinian (survival of the fittest) method to problem solving.

A computer creates thousands of slightly varied designs and then tests and selects the best of them.

The best programs evolve to another generation, where more variations, or

mutations

, are made.

The most successful mutations undergo a

crossover

, which produces a new generation of “offspring.”

Slide43

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

Instead of demanding yes/no or numerical information, a

fuzzy logic system

allows users to input “fuzzy” data.

This is an attempt to simulate real-world conditions.

These systems work more naturally with the user by piecing together an answer similar to what a traditional expert system uses.

Slide44

Artificial Intelligence

Comparison of Traditional SQL Query and the Equivalent Fuzzy Logic Query

Slide45

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

A

neural network

simulates the physical workings of the human mind and presents the ultimate attempt to model human intelligence.

It generally starts off with only an input source, some form of output, and a goal.

It learns by trial and error how a desired output affects the input.

The “gain” controls how quickly the system will learn or unlearn something.

Slide46

Artificial Intelligence

Natural Interface Applications

With

speech recognition

, users can direct a computer with voice commands rather than typing information into it.

A

natural-language interface

is broader in scope than speech recognition—the goal is to have the computer read a set of news articles and

understand

what it has read.

Slide47

Artificial Intelligence

Natural Interface Applications

Virtual reality (VR)

describes the concept of creating a realistic world within the computer.

The quality of a VR system is characterized in terms of its

immersiveness

—how real it feels.

A

mental interface

uses sensors mounted around the skull to read the alpha waves our brains give off.

The computer measures brain activity and interprets it as a command.

Slide48

Artificial Intelligence

Robots as Androids

The science of

robotics

is creating machines capable of independent movement and action.

An

android

is a simulated human.

To be more like humans, robots must undergo technological advances in visual and audio perception, touch, dexterity, locomotion, and navigation.

Slide49

Artificial Intelligence

Robots as Androids

Visual perception

is processing data coming from the eyes.

A single camera can’t simulate the eye—two cameras are needed to give

stereoscopic vision

, which allows depth and movement perception.

Audio perception

is processing data coming from the ears.

The robot must be able to identify a single voice and interpret what is being said amid background noise.

Slide50

Artificial Intelligence

Robots as Androids

Tactile perception

is the sense of touch.

The robot must not only be able to feel an object, but sense how much pressure it is applying.

The robot also needs

dexterity

, or hand-eye coordination.

Locomotion

includes broad movements such as walking.

Robots need balance, as well as the ability to adapt to a variety of situations.

Slide51

Artificial Intelligence

Robots as Androids

Navigation

deals with the science of moving a mobile robot through an environment.

It must work closely with a visual system or some other kind of perception system.

Slide52

On the Horizon

Based on the information presented in this chapter and your own experience, what do you think is

on the horizon

?