Autar Kaw Humberto Isaza httpnmMathForCollegecom Transforming Numerical Methods Education for STEM Undergraduates Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors httpnmMathForCollegecom Objectives ID: 272919 Download Presentation

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Prepared by Vince Zaccone. For Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSB. Prepared by Vince Zaccone. For Campus Learning Assistance Services at UCSB. Consider the equation . , where A is an . nxn.

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Slide1

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

Autar KawHumberto Isaza

http://nm.MathForCollege.com

Transforming Numerical Methods Education for STEM UndergraduatesSlide2

Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

http://nm.MathForCollege.comSlide3

ObjectivesDefine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a square matrix

Find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a square matrixRelate eigenvalues to the singularity of a square matrix, and

Use the power method to numerically find the largest eigenvalue in magnitude of a square matrix and the corresponding eigenvector.Slide4

Eigenvalue

What does eigenvalue mean?

The word eigenvalue comes from the German word

Eigenwert

where Eigen means

characteristic

and Wert means

value

.

However

, what the word means is not on your

mind! You

want to know why I need to learn about eigenvalues and eigenvectors

.

Once I give you an example of an application of eigenvalues and

eigenvectors, you

will want to know how to find these eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Slide5

Physical example

Can you give me a physical example application of eigenvalues and eigenvectors?

Look at the spring-mass system as shown in the picture below

.

Assume each of the two mass-displacements to be denoted by

and

, and let us assume each spring has the same spring constant

.

x

1

x

2

m

1

m

2

k

kSlide6

Physical example (cont.)

Then by applying Newton’s 2

nd

and 3

rd

law of motion to develop a force-balance for each mass we

have

Rewriting the equations, we have

Let

and

and

w

hich gives,

andSlide7

Physical example (cont.)

From vibration theory, the solutions can be of the form

Where

= amplitude of the vibration of mass

,

= frequency of vibration

,

= phase shift.

ThenSlide8

Physical example (cont.)

Substituting and in

equations

,

a

nd

gives

a

nd

or

a

nd Slide9

Physical example (cont.)

Substituting and in

equations

,

a

nd

gives

a

nd

or

a

nd

In matrix form, these equations can be rewritten asSlide10

Physical example (cont.)

Let

In the above equation,

is

the eigenvalue

and

is the eigenvector corresponding

to .

As you can see, if we know

for

the above example we

can calculate the natural frequency

of the

vibration

Slide11

Physical example (cont.)

Why are the natural frequencies of vibration important? Because you do not want to have a forcing force on the spring-mass system close to this frequency as it would make the amplitude

very

large and make the system unstable.Slide12

General definition of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a square matrix

If is a matrix, then is an eigenvector of if

where

is

a scalar and

. The

scalar

is

called the eigenvalue of and

is

called the eigenvector corresponding to the

eigenvalue .

What is the general definition of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a square matrix?Slide13

How do I find eigenvalues of a square matrix?

To find the eigenvalues of a

n

n

matrix ,

we have

Now for the above set of equations to have a nonzero solution,

Slide14

How do I find eigenvalues of a square matrix? (cont.)

This left hand side can be expanded to give a polynomial

in solving

the above equation would give us values of the eigenvalues. The above equation is called the characteristic equation of

.

For a

matrix, the characteristic polynomial

of is of degree as follows

giving

Hence. this

polynomial has

n

rootsSlide15

Example 1

Find the e

igenvalue

s of the

physical problem discussed in the beginning of this chapter

, that is, find the eigenvalues of the matrix

SolutionSlide16

Example 1 (cont.)

So the eigenvalues are 3.421 and 0.3288.Slide17

Example 2

Find the eigenvectors of

Solution

Let

be the eigenvector corresponding to

The eigenvalues have already been found in Example 1 asSlide18

Example 2 (cont.)

Hence

If

then Slide19

Example 2 (cont.)

The eigenvector corresponding

to then is,

The eigenvector corresponding

to is

Similarly, the eigenvector corresponding to isSlide20

Example 3

Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of

Solution

The characteristic equation is given bySlide21

Example 3 (cont.)

The roots of the above equation are

Note that there are eigenvalues that are repeated. Since there are only two distinct eigenvalues, there are only two

eigenspaces

. But, corresponding to

= 0.5 there should be two eigenvectors that form a basis for the eigenspace.

To find the eigenspaces, letSlide22

Example 3 (cont.)

Given

then

For

= 0.5

,

Solving this system givesSlide23

Example 3 (cont.)

So

So the

vectors and form

a basis for the eigenspace for the eigenvalue Slide24

Example 3 (cont.)

For

Solving this system gives

The eigenvector corresponding

to is

Hence the vector

is a basis for the eigenspace for the eigenvalue ofSlide25

Theorems of eigenvalues and eigenvectors

Theorem 1: If is

a

triangular

matrix – upper triangular, lower triangular or diagonal, the eigenvalues of

are

the diagonal entries of

.

Theorem 2:

is an eigenvalue of if is a singular (noninvertible) matrix.

Theorem 3: and have the same eigenvalues.Theorem 4: Eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix are real.

Theorem 5: Eigenvectors of a symmetric matrix are orthogonal, but only for distinct eigenvalues.Theorem 6:

is the product of the absolute values of the eigenvalues ofSlide26

Example 4

What are the eigenvalues of

Solution

Since the

matrix

is a lower triangular matrix, the eigenvalues of

are

the diagonal elements

of

. The

eigenvalues areSlide27

Example 5

One of the eigenvalues of

is zero. Is

invertible?

Solution

is

an eigenvalue of

,

that implies

is singular and is not invertible.Slide28

Example 6

Given the eigenvalues of

are

What are the eigenvalues

of if Slide29

Example 6 (cont.)Solution

Since ,

the eigenvalues of and are the same. Hence eigen

values of also are

are the same. Hence eigenvalues of

also areSlide30

Example 7

Given the eigenvalues of

are

Calculate the magnitude of the determinant of the matrix.Slide31

Example 7 (cont.)

Solution

SinceSlide32

Finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors numerically

How does one find eigenvalues and eigenvectors numerically?

One of the most common methods used for finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors is the p

ower method

. It is used to find the largest eigenvalue in an absolute sense. Note that if this largest eigenvalues is repeated, this method will not work. Also this eigenvalue needs to be distinct. The method is as follows:Slide33

Finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors numerically (cont.)

Assume

a guess

for the eigenvector in equation.

one of the entries of needs to be unity.

2. Find

3. Scale so

that the chosen unity component remains unity

4. Repeat

steps (2) and (3) with

to get

5.

Repeat the steps 2 and 3 until the value of the eigenvalue converges. Slide34

Finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors numerically (cont.)

If is the pre-specified percentage relative error tolerance to which you would like the answer to converge to, keep iterating until

where the left hand side of the above inequality is the definition of absolute percentage relative approximate error, denoted generally

by

A pre-specified percentage relative tolerance of I

mplies at least significant digits are current in your answer. When the system converges, the value

of

is the largest (in absolute value) eigenvalue of

. Slide35

Example 8

Using the p

ower method

, find the largest eigenvalue and the corresponding eigenvector of

Slide36

Example 8 (cont.)

Solution

AssumeSlide37

Example 8 (cont.)

We will choose the first element of

to be unity.Slide38

Example 8 (cont.)

The absolute relative approximate error in the eigenvalues isSlide39

Example 8 (cont.)

Conducting further iterations, the values of and the corresponding eigenvectors is given in the table belowSlide40

Example 8 (cont.)

The exact value of the eigenvalue is

and

the corresponding eigenvector isSlide41

Keyterms

Eigenvalue

Eigenvectors

Power method

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