iv Preface x PART ONE UNDERSTAND INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS CHAPTER  Integrated Marketing Communications  Marketing Communications  Advertising  Sales Promotion  Public Relations  Direct Mar
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iv Preface x PART ONE UNDERSTAND INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS CHAPTER Integrated Marketing Communications Marketing Communications Advertising Sales Promotion Public Relations Direct Mar

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iv Preface x PART ONE UNDERSTAND INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS CHAPTER Integrated Marketing Communications Marketing Communications Advertising Sales Promotion Public Relations Direct Mar




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Presentation on theme: "iv Preface x PART ONE UNDERSTAND INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS CHAPTER Integrated Marketing Communications Marketing Communications Advertising Sales Promotion Public Relations Direct Mar"— Presentation transcript:


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iv Preface x PART ONE UNDERSTAND INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS CHAPTER 1 Integrated Marketing Communications 2 Marketing Communications 4 Advertising 5 Sales Promotion 8 Public Relations 8 Direct Marketing 9 Internet Marketing 10 Personal Selling 11 Participants in the Promotional Process 11 Integrated Marketing Communications 12 The Evolution of IMC 13 Reasons for the Growth of IMC 14 Importance of IMC 16 A Broader View of IMC 19 Planning for Integrated Marketing Communications 23 Review the Marketing Plan 24 Assess the Marketing Communications Situation 25 Determine IMC Plan Objectives 29 Develop IMC Programs 29 Implement and Control the IMC Plan 30 Perspective and Organization of This Text 30 PART 2 CONNECT CONSUMERS TO IMC CHAPTER 2 Consumer Behaviour and Target Audience Decisions 34 An Overview of Consumer Behaviour 36 The Consumer Decision-Making Process 37 Need Recognition 37 Consumer Motivation 39 Information Search 40 Perception 41 Alternative Evaluation 44 Attitudes 45 Purchase Decision 45 Integration Processes 46 Postpurchase Evaluation 47 Satisfaction 47 ariations in Consumer Decision Making 48 ypes of Decision Making 48 Group Decision Making 49 Ta rget Audience Decision 50 Market Segmentation 53 Ta rget Market Selection 58 Ta rget Audience Options 59 CHAPTER 3 Communication Response Models 64 A Basic Model of Communication 66 Source/Encoding 66 Message 68 Channel 70 Receiver/Decoding 70 Noise 72 Response/Feedback 72 The Response Process 72 raditional Response Hierarchy Models 73 Implications of the Traditional Hierarchy Models 74 Alternative Response Hierarchies 76 Implications of the Alternative Response Models 79 Cognitive Processing of Communications 80 The Cognitive Response Approach 80 The Elaboration Likelihood Model 82 Integrative Perspectives of Communication Response Models 86 Theoretical Approach 86 Managerial Approach 88 Contents
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Contents PART 3 ARTICULATE THE MESSAGE CHAPTER 4 Objectives for the IMC Plan 92 Objective Setting 94 alue of Objectives 94 ypes of Objectives 95 From Communication Response Models to Communication Objectives 100 Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Results 100 Characteristics of Objectives 101 Assessment of DAGMAR 102 Comprehensive Response Model Applications 103 A New IMC Approach 105 Setting IMC Objectives 106 Options for Behavioural Objectives 107 Options for Communication Objectives 110 Communication Objectives for Buyer Decision Stages 114 CHAPTER 5 Brand Positioning Decisions 118 Market Positioning Strategy 120 Market Analysis 120 Competitive Analysis 121 Market Positioning Strategy Definition 121 Market Position Definition 122 Brand Positioning Strategy 123 Brand Positioning Strategy Definition 123 Brand Positioning Strategy via Brand Attitude 125 Brand Positioning Strategy Options 127 Options via Consumer and Competition 127 Options via Consumer Motives 130 Brand Positioning Strategy Decision Process 132 Advertising Creativity 135 Definition of Advertising Creativity 135 Importance of Advertising Creativity 136 Planning Creative Strategy 137 Creative Challenge 137 Creative Process 138 Copy Platform 141 CHAPTER 6 Creative Strategy Decisions 146 Creative Theme 148 Origin of Creative Theme 149 Creative Consistency 152 Canadian Creative Themes 156 Message Appeals 159 Rational Appeals 160 Emotional Appeals 162 Fear Appeals 163 Humour Appeals 165 Combined Rational and Emotional Appeals 165 Source Characteristics 169 Source Credibility 170 Source Attractiveness 172 Source Power 177 CHAPTER 7 Creative Tactics Decisions 180 Creative Execution Style 182 Straight Sell or Factual Message 182 Scientific/Technical Evidence 183 Demonstration 183 Comparison 183 estimonial 183 Slice of Life 185 Animation 185 Personality Symbol 186 Fantasy 186 Dramatization 186 Humour 187 Message Structure 187 Order of Presentation 187 Conclusion Drawing 188 Message Sidedness 189 erbal versus Visual Messages 189 Design Elements for IMC Tools 191 Creative Tactics for Print Advertising 191
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vi Contents Creative Tactics for Television 194 Frameworks for Creative Tactics 199 The FCB Planning Model 199 The R&P Planning Model 201 Evaluating Creative Designs 205 Process of Evaluation 206 Guidelines for Evaluation 206 CHAPTER 8 Measuring the Effectiveness of the Promotional Program 210 The Measuring Advertising Effectiveness Debate 212 Reasons for Measuring Advertising Effectiveness 212 Reasons for Not Measuring Advertising Effectiveness 213 Decisions for Measuring Advertising Effectiveness 214 What to Test 214 When to Test 215 Where to Test 217 Methods of Measuring Advertising Effectiveness 217 Concept Generation and Testing 218 Rough Art, Copy, and Commercial Testing 220 Pretesting of Finished Ads 222 Market Testing of Ads 226 Establishing a Program for Measuring Advertising Effectiveness 233 Problems with Current Research Methods 233 Essentials of Effective Testing 236 PART 4 DELIVER THE MESSAGE CHAPTER 9 Media Strategy, Tactics, and Budget Decisions 240 Media Planning 242 Media Plan 242 Media Planning Challenges 246 Media Strategy Decisions 247 The Media Mix 248 Ta rget Audience Coverage 251 Geographic Coverage 252 Scheduling 254 Reach versus Frequency 256 Media Tactics Decisions 260 Media Vehicle 260 Budget Adjustments 262 Blocking Chart 264 Media Budget 265 Theoretical Approaches in Budget Setting 266 Managerial Approaches in Budget Setting 269 CHAPTER 10 Broadcast Media 282 elevision 284 Strengths of Television 284 Limitations of Television 286 Buying Television Advertising Time 289 Network, Spot, Sponsorship 290 ime Periods and Programs 295 Specialty Television Advertising 295 Measuring the TV Audience 298 Radio 303 Strengths of Radio 303 Limitations of Radio 306 Buying Radio Time 307 ime Classifications 307 Measuring the Radio Audience 308 CHAPTER 11 Print Media 312 Evaluation of Magazines 314 Classifications of Magazines 314 Strengths of Magazines 317 Limitations of Magazines 322 Buying Magazine Advertising Space 323 Magazine Circulation and Readership 323 Magazine Audience Measurement—PMB 324 Magazine Advertising Rates 325
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vii Contents The Future for Magazines 326 Evaluation of Newspapers 328 ypes of Newspapers 328 ypes of Newspaper Advertising 329 Strengths of Newspapers 330 Limitations of Newspapers 332 Buying Newspaper Advertising Space 333 Newspaper Circulation and Readership 333 Newspaper Audience Measurement 335 Newspaper Advertising Rates 337 The Future for Newspapers 339 CHAPTER 12 Out-of-Home and Support Media 342 Outdoor Media 344 Outdoor Media Options 344 Audience Measurement for Outdoor Media 347 Strengths of Outdoor Media 348 Limitations of Outdoor Media 348 ransit Media 349 Commuter Transit Options 349 Strengths of Transit Advertising 350 Limitations of Transit Media 351 Airline Transit Options 353 Strengths of In-Flight Advertising 353 Limitations of In-Flight Advertising 353 Place-Based Media 354 Place-Based Media Options 354 Strengths of Place-Based Media 354 Limitations of Place-Based Media 355 Place-Based Media at the Movies 356 Strengths of Movie Theatres as a Media 356 Limitations of Movie Theatres as a Media 357 Point-of-Purchase Media 357 Strengths of Point-of-Purchase Media 358 Limitations of Point-of-Purchase Media 358 Promotional Products 359 Strengths of Promotional Products 359 Limitations of Promotional Products 361 Audience Measurement in Promotional Products Marketing 361 ellow Pages Media 362 Strengths of Yellow Pages Media 362 Limitations of Yellow Pages Media 362 Product Placement 363 Product Placement Decisions 363 Strengths of Product Placement 364 Limitations of Product Placement 365 Audience Measurement for Product Placement 365 PART 5 STRENGTHEN THE MESSAGE CHAPTER 13 Sales Promotion 368 Sales Promotion Planning 370 Characteristics and Types of Sales Promotion 370 Growth of Sales Promotion 372 Sales Promotion versus Advertising 376 Sales Promotion Plan 376 Objectives of Consumer Sales Promotion 377 Consumer Sales Promotion Strategy Decisions 378 Consumer Sales Promotion Tactics Decisions 382 Consumer Sales Promotion Strategy Options 383 Sampling 383 Coupons 386 Premiums 390 Contests and Sweepstakes 393 Refunds and Rebates 395 Bonus Packs 396 Price-Off Deals 397 Frequency Programs 397 Event Marketing 398 rade Sales Promotion 399 Objectives of Trade Sales Promotion 399 rade Sales Promotion Strategy Options 400 IMC Issues Related to Sales Promotion Decisions 405 Budget Allocation 406 Creative Themes 407 Media Support 407 Strategic Role 408 Measuring Sales Promotion Effectiveness 411 CHAPTER 14 Public Relations 414 Public Relations 416 The Traditional Definition of PR 416 The New Role of PR 416 Publicity: One Effect of Public Relations 417
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viii Contents Strengths of Public Relations 418 Limitations of Public Relations 419 Public Relations Plan 420 Situation Analysis 420 Determine Relevant Target Audiences 421 Behavioural Objectives 423 Communication Objectives 423 Strategy 423 actics 424 Public Relations Effectiveness 425 Public Relations 426 News Media Options 426 Strengths of News Media 429 Limitations of News Media 431 Corporate Advertising 431 Corporate Reputation 432 Concerns 432 Image Advertising 433 Cause-Related Advertising 435 Sponsorship 436 Strengths of Corporate Advertising 440 Limitations of Corporate Advertising 440 CHAPTER 15 Direct Marketing 442 Direct Marketing 444 Defining Direct Marketing 444 The Growth of Direct Marketing 444 The Role of Direct Marketing in the IMC Program 446 Direct-Marketing Program Plan 447 Direct-Marketing Objectives 447 Developing a Database 447 Direct-Marketing Media Strategy 451 Direct-Marketing Effectiveness 458 Evaluation of Direct Marketing 458 Strengths of Direct Marketing 458 Limitations of Direct Marketing 459 CHAPTER 16 Internet and Interactive Media 462 Defining the Internet 464 Internet 464 E-Business 465 E-Commerce 465 I-Commerce 466 Internet Marketing 466 Internet Marketing Communication 466 Internet Participants 466 Internet Communication 468 ebsite Communication Objectives 468 ebsite Strategy 471 Internet and IMC 472 Advertising 472 Personal Selling on the Internet 474 Public Relations on the Internet 474 Direct Marketing on the Internet 475 Measuring Internet Effectiveness 477 Audience Measures 477 Processing and Communication Effects Measures 479 Sources of Measurement Data 479 Evaluation of Internet Marketing 480 Strengths of Internet Marketing 480 Limitations of Internet Marketing 482 Additional Interactive Media 483
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ix Contents PART 6 IMPLEMENT AND CONTROL THE IMC PLAN CHAPTER 17 Organizing for Integrated Marketing Communications 486 Organizing for Advertising and Promotion in the Firm 488 The Centralized System 488 The Decentralized System 490 Advertising Agencies 492 Advertising Agency Decision 492 Full-Service Advertising Agencies 495 Other Types of Agencies and Services 498 Agency Compensation 499 Commissions from Media 499 Other Compensation Systems 502 Evaluation of Agencies 503 Reasons for Agencies Losing Clients 505 Specialized Services 506 Sales Promotion Agencies 506 Public Relations Firms 507 Direct-Response Agencies 507 Interactive Agencies 507 Integrated Marketing Communications Services 508 Pros and Cons of Integrated Services 508 Responsibility for IMC: Agency versus Client 509 Agency–Client Relationships with IMC 510 CHAPTER 18 Regulatory, Ethical, and Social Issues for Integrated Marketing Communications 514 Advertising Regulation in Canada 517 Canadian Radio-television and elecommunications Commission (CRTC) 517 Regulation of Tobacco Advertising 518 Quebec Regulations on Advertising to Children 519 Advertising Standards Council (ASC) 519 Ethical Effects of Advertising 524 Advertising as Untruthful or Deceptive 525 Advertising as Offensive or in Bad Taste 526 Advertising and Children 529 Social Effects of Advertising 530 Advertising Encourages Materialism 531 Advertising Makes People Buy Things They Don’t Need 532 Advertising and Stereotyping 534 Advertising and the Media 536 Summarizing Social Effects 538 Economic Effects of Advertising 538 Effects on Consumer Choice 539 Effects on Competition 539 Effects on Product Costs and Prices 540 Summarizing Economic Effects 541 Glossary vailable on the Online Learning Centre at www.mcgrawhill.ca/college/belch Endnotes 546 Credits and Acknowledgments 560 Name and Company Index 563 Subject Index 568