801K - views

Common Polyatomic Ions

Names of Common Polyatomic Ions. . Ion Name Ion Name. . NH. 4. . +. ammonium. . CO. 3 . 2-. carbonate. *NO. 2. . -. *nitrite . HCO. 3. . -.

Download Presentation

Common Polyatomic Ions




Download Presentation - The PPT/PDF document "Common Polyatomic Ions" is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.



Presentation on theme: "Common Polyatomic Ions"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

Common Polyatomic Ions

Names of Common Polyatomic Ions

Ion Name Ion Name

NH4 + ammonium CO3 2- carbonate *NO2 - *nitrite HCO3 - bicarbonate NO3 - nitrate *IO3- *iodate *SO3 2- *sulfite *IO4- *periodate SO4 2- sulfate *ClO - *hypochlorite HSO4- hydrogen sulfate *ClO2 - *chlorite OH - hydroxide ClO3 - chlorate CN - cyanide *ClO4 - *perchlorate C2H3O2- acetate *BrO3- *bromate MnO4 - permanganate C2O42- oxalate PO4 3- phosphate Cr2O7 2- dichromate *PO3 3- *phosphite CrO4 2- chromate H2PO4 - dihydrogen phosphate O2 2- peroxide

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste,

World of Chemistry 2002, page 100

Memorize the BOLD ions

* = you will be responsible for knowing theseSlide2

Polyatomic Ion Trends

*Charges NEVER change between different forms

“Normal”

“–ate” form

BrO3-bromateClO3-chlorate

IO

3-iodate

NO

3

-

nitrate

CO32-carbonateSO42-sulfatePO43-phosphate

BrO2-ClO2-IO2-NO2-CO22-SO32-PO33-

BrO-ClO-IO-

BrO4-ClO4-IO4-

-1 oxygen“-ite” form

-2 oxygens“hypo___ite”

+1 oxygen“Per____ate”

bromite

chlorite

iodite

nitrite

sulfite

phosphite

hypobromite

hypochlorite

hypoiodite

perbromate

perchlorate

periodate

carboniteSlide3

Atomic Theory ReviewSlide4

Electron Cloud Model

Orbital

(“electron cloud”) instead of “orbits”

Region in space where there is 90% probability of finding an electronCourtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

Electron Probability vs. Distance

Electron Probability (%)

Distance from the Nucleus (pm)

100

150

200

250

500

01020

3040

Orbital

90% probability of

finding the electron

Orbital ShapeSlide5

Shapes of s, p, and d-Orbitals

each

holds 2

electrons (s2)each of 5 orbitals holds 2 e - = 10 total d electrons (d10)

each of 3 orbitals holds 2 e - = 6 total p electrons (p6)Slide6

s, p, and d-orbitals

s orbitals:

Each holds 2

electrons

(outer orbitals ofGroups 1 and 2)p orbitals:Each of 3 sets holds 2 electrons = 6 electrons(outer orbitals of Groups 3 to 8)d orbitals:Each of 5 sets holds 2 electrons= 10 electrons(found in elements in third periodand higher)Orbital Filling VideoSlide7

Copyright

©

2006 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.

Orbitals overlap each other as you get farther from the nucleusSlide8

f-orbitals

7 f

orbitals @ 2 e- each =

14 e-Slide9

s, p, d and f orbitals

How many g orbitals could exist?Slide10

theoretical g-orbitals

9 g orbitals @ 2 e- each = 18 e-Slide11

s

p

d

f

6

7

Periodic Patterns for Electron Config

1

s

2

s

3s4s5s6s

7s3d4d5d6d

1s2p3p

4p5p6p7p

4

f

5

f

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

2

(n-1)

(n-2)

n

3

5

6

7

8

4Slide12

s-block

1st Period

1s

1

# of e- in that orbital(s)

Periodic Patterns

Example - HydrogenCourtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chemSlide13

Shorthand Configuration

S 16e

-

Valence Electrons

(Highest energy level)Core ElectronsS 16e- [Ne] 3s2 3p41s22s2

2p6

3s2

3p4Electron Configuration ReviewLonghand ConfigurationCourtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

S

32.066

16Slide14

[Ar]

4s

2

3d

104p2

Periodic Patterns

Example -

Germanium

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem

Ge

72.61

32Slide15

[ ]

neon's electron configuration

(1

s22s22p6)Shorthand Configuration[Ne] 3s1

3rd energy level (or 3

rd

period)

1 electron in the

s

orbital

orbital shape (s,p,d,f…etc.)1s22s22p6 3s1electron configurationABCD

Na =[Ne]Slide16

Shorthand Configuration Practice

[Ar] 4

s

2

Electron configurationElement symbol

[Ar] 4

s2 3d3

[Rn] 7s2 5

f

14

6

d4[He] 2s2 2p5[Kr] 5s2 4d9[Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p5[Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p6[He] 2s22p

63s23p64s23d6CaVSg

F

Ag

I

Xe

Fe

[Ar] 4

s

2

3

d

6Slide17

Periodic Patterns Review

Period # (1-7)

energy level

(subtract for d & f)Group # (1-8…excluding d block)total # of valence e-Column within Sublevel block# of e- in sublevel/orbitalCourtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chemSlide18

s

p

d

f

6

7

Periodic Patterns and Charge Trends

1

s

1

2

3

4

5

67

+1

+2

(n-2)

n

+3

- 3

- 2

- 1

Variable Charge

METALS

NON-METALSSlide19

Electron Configurations for Cations

Metals lose e

-

to attain a noble gas configurationMetals form positive ionsCations are “paws”itiveMetal ions will lose e- from configurationNa: 1s22s22p63s1Na+:

1s22s22p6 noble gas configurationSlide20

Formation of a Cation

11

p

+

sodium atomNa[Ne] 3s1e-loss of one valence electrone-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-

e

-e-

sodium ionNa+[Ne]

11

p

+

e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-Slide21

Electron Configurations for Anions

Non-metals gain electrons to attain a noble gas configuration

They form negative ions

Take a look at the e- configurationS 1s22s22p63s23p4 (6 valence electrons) + 2e

-S2- 1s22s22p63s23p6 (noble gas configuration)Slide22

Formation of an Anion

17

p

+

chlorine atomCl[Ne]3s23p5e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-

e

-e-

e-e-e-e-

e

-

e

-gain of one valence electronchloride ionCl –[Ne]3s23p6 or [Ar]e-17p+e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-

e-e-e-e-e-e-e-Slide23

Stable Electron Configurations

All atoms react to achieve noble gas configuration

Noble gases have two

s and six p electronsEight valence electrons Also called the octet ruleArSlide24

Bonding Review and Writing Ionic Formulas

Table saltSlide25

Formation of Ionic Bond

sodium ion

Na

+

11p+e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-

chloride ion

Cl -

17p+e-e-

e

-

e

-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-+

-Slide26

Ionic Bonding

Anions and cations are held together by opposite charges

All ionic compounds are called salts

Simplest ratio is called the formula unitThe bond is formed through the transfer of electronsElectrons are transferred to fill all available orbitals, or achieve a noble gas configurationSlide27

O

2-

K

+

K+

Mg

2+

Br

-

Br

-

K

Brpotassium atombromine atom

e

-

e-

Br

-

K

+

potassium ion

bromide ion

potassium bromide

KBr

MgBr

2

K

2

O

magnesium bromide

potassium oxideSlide28

Bonding Practice

Ca

2+

Al

3+

Na+

Pb

4+

OH

-

N

3-

Mg2+OH -

OH -

N3-

Pb

4+

N

3-

N

3-

Pb

4+

N

3-

Pb

4+

N

3-

?

Pb

4+

N

3-

Pb

3

N

4

lead (IV) nitride

or

plumbic nitride

NaOH

Mg(OH)

2

AlN

CaBr

2

Ca(OH)

2

CaOSlide29

Fe

2+

Ca

2+

Ca

2+

Ca

2+

PO

4

3-

PO43-

PO43-NH4+

NH4+

NH4+

O

2-

Al

3+

Al

3+

O

2-

O

2-

O

2-

Ca

3

(PO

4

)

2

(NH

4

)

3

PO

4

FeO

Al

2

O

3Slide30

Subscripts, Superscripts and Coefficients

Mg

3

(PO4 )2coefficientsubscripts

superscripts

MAGNESIUM

PHOSPHATE

P

O

4

3- Mg2+5Slide31

Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds

chemical formula

:

has neutral charge; shows types of atoms and how many of eachTo write an ionic compound’s formula, we need: 1. the two types of ions 2. the charge on each ion

Na+ and F– Ba2+ and O2– Na+ and O2– Ba2+ and F– NaFBaONa2OBaF2Slide32

ide

Calcium hydrox

ide

Ca

2+OH-

CaOH

2

Ca(OH)

2

Ca - O

H

HHO - Ca - OH vs.

The Importance of ParenthesesThe formulas imply two totally different compounds!Slide33

(NH

4

)

3NFe2(Cr2O7)3

Sn(SO4)2NH4ClO3Mg(NO2)2BaSO4Writing Formulas w/Polyatomic IonsParentheses are required only when you need more than one “bunch” of a particular polyatomic ionBa2+ and SO42– Mg2+ and NO2– NH

4+ and ClO3

Sn4+ and SO42– Fe3+ and Cr2O

7

2–

NH4+ and N3– Slide34

Element Latin root

-ic -ous

gold, Au

aur- Au3+ Au1+lead, Pb plumb- Pb4+ Pb2+tin, Sn stann- Sn4+ Sn2+copper, Cu cupr- Cu2+ Cu1+iron, Fe ferr- Fe3+ Fe2+Traditional (OLD) System of Nomenclature …used historically (and still some today) to name compounds w/multiple-charge cationsTo use: 1. Use Latin root of cation. 2. Use -ic ending for higher charge “ -ous “ “ lower “

3. Then say name of anion, as usual.

;

(“icky” food is good for you!)

;

(“delici

ous”

food is not good for you!)Slide35

Cu

2

S

AuNFeF2plumbic phosphide

plumbous phosphidestannic chlorideFe2+ Write formulas:Write names:cuprous sulfideauric nitrideferrous fluoridePb3P43 Pb? 4 P3–Cu

1+

Pb3P2

3 Pb? 2 P3–Au3+

SnCl

4

Sn

? 4 Cl1–S2– N3– F1– Slide36

Nomenclature -

Humor

“Ferrous Wheel”

Fe = iron (Latin = ferrum)

Fe2+ = lower oxidation state = ferrousFe3+ = higher oxidation state = ferricBaNa2

BaNaNa”

Fe

2+

Fe

2+

Fe2+Fe2+Fe2+Fe2+

Fe2+Fe2+What weapon can you make

from the elements nickel, potassium and iron?A KNiFeSlide37

Teacher: What is the formula for water?

Student: H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O

Teacher: That’s not what I taught you.

Student: But you said the formula for water was…H to O.

Website: Dihydrogen monoxide Information Campaign

mis

mis

“Little Johnny took a drink,

Now he shall drink no more.

For what he thought was H

2

O,Was H2SO4.”Under aged Pb walks into a bar and the bartender turns to the goldBouncer and says, “Au, get the lead out!”"H-O-H"?! WHAT'STHAT SPELL?!WATER?Slide38

Four Types of Naming

Fixed Charge Ionic Compounds

Variable Charge Ionic Compounds

Acidic CompoundsCovalent Molecules

Contain a metal with a fixed charge and a non-metal (ionic) Contain H+ with various anions (ionic when aqueous) Contain 2 or more nonmetals onlyContain a metal with a variable charge and a non-metal (ionic)Slide39

Li

3

H

1He2

C6N7O8F9Ne10Na11B5Be4H1Al13Si14

P15

S16

Cl17Ar18K19

Ca

20

Sc

21Ti22V23Cr24Mn25Fe26Co27Ni28Cu29Zn30Ga31Ge32As33Se34Br35

Kr36Rb37Sr38Y 39Zr40Nb41Mo42Tc43Ru44

Rh45Pd46Ag47Cd

48In49Sn50Sb51

Te52

I53

Xe54

Cs55

Ba56

Hf

72

Ta73

W

74Re

75

Os76

Ir77

Pt78

Au79

Hg

80

Tl81

Pb

82

Bi83

Po

84

At85

Rn

86

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

Mg

12

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103

La

57

Ac

89

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

*

W

Fixed charge cations

Variable charge cations

Elemental anions

1+

2+

3+

1-

2-

3-Slide40

Fixed Charge Exceptions

Start with Al

Go backwards down the stairs

Decrease the charge after each stairAl13Zn30

Ag473+2++

3+Slide41

Fixed Charge Compound Nomenclature

Metals (fixed charge) + NonmetalsSlide42

Fixed Charge Compounds

Compounds that contain a metal with a fixed charge

(group 1, 2, and 3, with Zn

2+

, Ag+, etc.), and a non-metalTo name these compounds, use the name of metal and thename of the non-metal with the ending replaced by the suffix –ideExamples:NaCl (Na+ Cl-)

CaS (Ca

2+ S2-)

AlI3 (Al3+ 3I-)

sodium chlor

ide

calcium sulf

idealuminum iodideSlide43

Cations and Anions

Common Simple Cations and Anions

Cation Name Anion Name*

H

+ hydrogen H - hydride Li+ lithium F - fluoride Na+ sodium Cl - chloride K+ potassium Br - bromide Cs+ cesium I - iodide Be2+ beryllium O 2- oxide Mg2+ magnesium S 2- sulfide Al3+ aluminum N 3- nitride Ag+ silver P 3- phosphide Zn2+ zinc *The root is given in color Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry

2002, page 86

EXCEPTIONSSlide44

“Perhaps one of you gentlemen would mind telling me just

what is outside the window that you find so attractive..?”

Image courtesy NearingZero.net Slide45

Fixed Charge Naming Practice

Formula Name

BaO ____________________

________________ sodium bromide

MgI2 ____________________ KCl ____________________________________ strontium fluoride________________ cesium fluoridebarium oxideNaBr

magnesium iod

ide

potassium chlor

ide

SrF

2

CsFSlide46

(NH

4

)

3NNa2Cr2O7

Al2(SO4)3NH4ClO3Mg(NO2)2BaSO4Fixed Charge Nomenclature w/Polyatomic IonsSimply insert the name of the polyatomic ion into the final nameBa2+ and SO42– Mg2+ and NO2–

NH

4+

and ClO3– Al3+ and SO42–

Na

+

and Cr2O72– NH4+ and N3– barium sulfatemagnesium nitriteammonium chloratealumnium sulfate

sodium dichromateammonium nitrideSlide47

Polyatomic Ions Quiz

phosphate

sulfate

dichromate

permanganateacetatePO43- ……………SO42- ……………Cr2O72- …………..MnO4- …………..CH3COO- …….Slide48

Variable Charge Compound Nomenclature

Metals (variable charge) + NonmetalsSlide49

Roman Numeral Review

Greek

Number

Roman Numeral

1I2II3III4

IV

5

V6

VI

7

VII

8VIII9IX10XNumberRoman Numeral

1I5V10X

50L100

CSlide50

Li

3

H

1He2

C6N7O8F9Ne10Na11B5Be4H1Al13Si14

P

15S

16Cl17Ar18K

19

Ca

20

Sc21Ti22V23Cr24Mn25Fe26Co27Ni28Cu29Zn30Ga31Ge32As33Se34Br

35Kr36Rb37Sr38Y 39Zr40Nb41Mo42Tc43Ru

44Rh45Pd46Ag47

Cd48In49Sn50Sb51

Te52

I53

Xe54

Cs

55Ba

56

Hf

72Ta

73

W74

Re75

Os76

Ir77

Pt

78Au

79

Hg80

Tl

81

Pb82

Bi

83

Po84

At

85

Rn

86

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

Mg

12

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103

La

57

Ac

89

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

*

W

Single charge cations

Variable charge cations

Elemental anions

1+

2+

3+

1-

2-

3-Slide51

Stock System

of nomenclature

Variable Charge Ionic Compounds

To name, given the formula:

1. Figure out charge on cation2. Write name of cation3. Write Roman numerals in ( ) to show cation’s chargeCompounds that contain a metal with variable charge (Pb, Sn, and the transition metals—not including Ag or Zn), and a non-metalSlide52

Variable charge Naming Practice

4. Write name of anion:

FeO Fe

? O2– Fe2

O3 2 Fe? 3 O2– CuBr Cu? Br – CuBr2 Cu? 2 Br – iron(II) oxideiron(III) oxidecopper(I) bromidecopper(II) bromideSlide53

Variable Charge Cations

Common Type II Cations

Ion Stock System Traditional System

Fe 3+ iron (III) ferric Fe 2+ iron (II) ferrous Cu 2+ copper (II) cupric Cu 1+ copper (I) cuprous Co 3+ cobalt (III) cobaltic Co 2+ cobalt (II) cobaltous Sn 4+ tin (IV) stannic Sn 2+ tin (II) stannous Pb 4+ lead (IV) plumbic Pb 2+ lead (II) plumbous Hg 2+ mercury (II) mercuric Hg2 2+ mercury (I) mercurous *Mercury (I) ions are always bonded together in pairs to form Hg2 2+ Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 90Slide54

To find the formula, given the name:

2. Balance charges to write formula

cobalt (III) chloride Co

3+

Cl– tin (IV) oxide Sn4+ O2– tin (II) oxide Sn2+ O2– 1. Write symbols for the two types of ionsVariable Charge Ionic CompoundsSnOSnO2CoCl3Slide55

Naming Variable Charge Ionic Compounds

Formula Name

Hg

2

O ____________________ HgO ____________________________________ copper (II) fluoride________________ copper (I) sulfide Cr2O3 ____________________________________ lead (IV) oxidemercury (I) oxidePbO2

mercury (II) oxide

CuF2

Cu2S

chromium (III) ox

ideSlide56

Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions

________________ iron (II) phosphate

________________ ammonium carbonate

________________ aluminum sulfate

V2SO3 ____________________ AgCN ____________________ Ba(ClO3)2 ____________________________________ copper (II) hydroxideFe3(PO4) 2(NH4)2CO3Al2(SO4)3vanadium (I) sulfitesilver cyanidebarium chlorate

Cu(OH)

2Slide57

Acidic Compounds

Oxysalts + H

2

O

 OxyacidsSlide58

Acidic Compounds

(Nonmetals Dissolved in Water)

The prefix

hydro

- is used to represent hydrogen, followed by the root name of the nonmetal with its ending replaced by the suffix –ic acid.Examples: *HCl(aq) HBr(aq) *The name of this gas would be hydrogen monochloride if it was NOT dissolved in water.Acids(aq) without oxygenHydrochloric acid

Hydro

bromic acid

(aq) = aqueous or dissolved in waterSlide59

Acidic Compounds

Nonmetals Dissolved in Water

Start with the name of the polyatomic ion (with oxygen), and change the ending based on the following rule:

If the ion ends in “ate,” change the suffix to –ic acid. If the ion ends in “ite,” change the suffix to –ous acid.

Retain any prefixes such as “per” or “hypo” in front of the acid name. NEVER use “hydro”! Examples: HClO3(aq) HBrO(aq) Acids(aq) WITH oxygen (oxyacids)Chloric acidHypobromous acid

ClO3- = chlor

ate

BrO- = hypobromiteSlide60

An

acid

with aname ending in

An ion with aname ending in-ic-ous

-ate-iteHill, Petrucci, General Chemistry An Integrated Approach 1999, page 60Oxyacid Naming RulesSlide61

Common Oxyacid Names

The following table lists the most common families of oxy acids.

one more

oxygen atom

most“common”one lessoxygen

two fewer

oxygens

HClO

4

per

chlor

ic acidHClO3chloric acidHClO2chlorous acidHClOhypochlorous acidH2SO4sulfuric acidH2SO3sulfurous acidH3PO4phosphoric acidH3PO3phosphorous acidH3PO2hypophosphorous acidHNO3nitric acidHNO2nitrous acidSlide62

Acid Nomenclature Practice

Formula Name

HCl ____________________

HClO ____________________

________________ sulfuric acid________________ hydrofluoric acid H3N ____________________________________ periodic acidhydrochloric acidHIO4hypochlorous acid

H

2SO4

HFhydronitric acidSlide63

Covalent Compounds

Nonmetal + NonmetalSlide64

Writing Formulas of Covalent Compounds

Covalent Compounds

contain two or more non-metals

(NO METALS!) Key: FORGET CHARGES

To Name, given the formula: 1. Use Greek prefixes to indicate how many atoms of each element, but don’t use “mono” on first element (least electronegative, excluding H) 2. Add the suffix –ide to the second element (most electronegative) 1 mono 6 hexa 2 di 7 hepta 3 tri 8 octa 4 tetra 9 nona 5 penta 10 decaPrefixes to memorize!Slide65

Covalent Nomenclature Practice

EXAMPLES:

carbon dioxide

CO

dinitrogen trioxide SF6 carbon tetrachloride NI3 CO2carbon monoxideN2O3sulfur hexafluorideCCl4

nitrogen triiodideSlide66

More Practice with covalent compounds…

________________ diarsenic trisulfide

________________ sulfur dioxide

P

2O5 ____________________________________ nitrogen trihydride N2O5 ____________________ H2O ____________________As2S3SO2diphosphorus pentoxideNH3dinitrogen pentoxidedihydrogen monoxideSlide67

Naming Simple Chemical Compounds

Ionic (metal and nonmetal)

Covalent (2 nonmetals)

Metal

Formsonly onepositive ionFormsmore thanone positiveionNonmetalUse the name of elementUse elementname followedby a Romannumeral toshow the chargeFirstnonmetalSecondnonmetalBeforeelement name use a prefixto matchsubscriptUse a prefixbeforeelement name and end with ideSingleNegative IonPolyatomic IonUse the nameof the

element, butend with ide

Use thename ofpolyatomicion (ate

orIte)Slide68

fluoride

sulfide

sulfide bromide diphosphide iodide tetrachloride oxide phosphideiridium (III) calcium titanium (IV) hydrochloric acid barium trinitrogen hydrofluoric acidzinc nitrogen gold (III) sodium IrCaTiHBa

N3H

ZnNAuNa

F3

S

S2Cl(aq) Br2 P2F(aq) I2Cl4 2O3 3PIonic/variableIonic/fixedIonic/variableAcidIonic/fixedCovalentAcidIonic/fixedCovalentIonic/variableIonic/fixedOverall Nomenclature PracticeSlide69

dichromate

hydroxide

acid acetate acid sulfate cyanidenitrite chlorate phosphate acidiridium (III) calcium nitric platinum (II) bromous strontium potassium zinc manganese (IV) gold (III) sulfurous (Cr2O7)3

(OH)2

NO3 (aq)

(CH3COO)2BrO2(aq) SO4CN (NO2)2 (ClO

3

)

4

PO4 SO3 (aq) Ir2CaHPtHSrKZnMnAuH2Ionic/variableIonic/fixedAcidIonic/variableAcidIonic/fixedIonic/fixedIonic/fixedIonic/variableIonic/variableAcidIonic Nomenclature PracticeSlide70

Covalent

Ionic (M + NM)

Ionic (M + NM)

Two or more NM’s

Variable charge cation

Fixed charge cation

Roman

numeral

Polyatomic ions OK

Roman numeral

for

name onlyPolyatomic ions

Greek prefixesChargeCriss-CrossRule

RomannumeralOK

Where would you file these?

VCrO

4

BaO

CBr

4

Nb(ClO

4

)

5

SCl

2

Rb

2

SO

4

dinitrogen pentoxide

platinum (IV) iodate

ammonium chlorate

potassium iodide

nitrogen trichloride

manganese (V) sulfide

vanadium (II) chromate

VCrO

4

N

2

O

5

dinitrogen pentoxide

barium oxide

BaO

Pt(IO

3

)

4

platinum (IV) iodate

carbon tetrabromide

CBr

4

NH

4

ClO

3

ammonium chlorate

niobium (V) perchlorate

Nb(ClO

4

)

5

KI

potassium iodide

sulfur dichloride

SCl

2

NCl

3

nitrogen trichloride

rubidium sulfate

Rb

2

SO

4

Mn

2

S

5

manganese (V) sulfideSlide71

Suffixes have meaning

“-

ide

” binary compound sodium chloride (NaCl)“-ite” or “-ate” polyatomic compound sulfite (SO32-) sulfate (SO42-) “-ate

” means one more oxygen than “-ite”“-ol” alcohol methyl alcohol (methanol)“-ose” sugar sucrose“-ase” enzyme sucraseSlide72

Extra Slides

H

H

O

S

O

O

OSlide73

Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

Insert name of ion where it should go in the compound’s name.

Write formulas:

iron (III) nitrateammonium phosphide ammonium chloritezinc phosphate lead (II) permanganateFe(NO3)3(NH4)3PNH4ClO2Zn3(PO4)2

Pb(MnO4

)2

Fe3+NO31–NH4

1+

P

3–

NH41+ClO21–Zn2+PO43–Pb2+MnO41–33322Slide74

Write names:

(NH

4

)2S2O3

AgBrO3 (NH4)3N U(CrO4)3 Cr2(SO3)3Writing Formulas of Ionic Compoundsammonium thiosulfatesilver bromateammonium nitrideuranium (VI) chromate

chromium (III) sulfite

CrO4

2–SO32–3

3

2

Cr

U??6+3+Slide75

Element Latin root

-ic -ous

gold, Au

aur- Au3+ Au1+lead, Pb plumb- Pb4+ Pb2+tin, Sn stann- Sn4+ Sn2+copper, Cu cupr- Cu2+ Cu1+iron, Fe ferr- Fe3+ Fe2+Traditional (OLD) System of Nomenclature …used historically (and still some today) to name

compounds w/multiple-charge cations

To use: 1. Use Latin root of cation.

2. Use -ic ending for higher charge “ -ous “ “ lower “ 3. Then say name of anion, as usual.

;

(“icky” food is good for you!)

;

(“delicious” food is not good for you!)Slide76

Cu

2

S

AuNFeF2

plumbic phosphideplumbous phosphidestannic chlorideFe2+ Write formulas:Write names:cuprous sulfideauric nitrideferrous fluoridePb3P4

3 Pb

? 4 P3–

Cu1+Pb3P2

3 Pb

?

2 P

3–Au3+SnCl4Sn? 4 Cl1–S2– N3– F1– Slide77

Polyatomic Ion:

a group of atoms that stay together and have a single, overall charge

.

BrO41-

Perbromate ionBrO31-Bromate ionBrO21-Bromite ion

BrO

1-Hypo

bromite ionCO

4

2-

CO

32-Carbonate ionCO22-CO2-ClO41-ClO31-Chlorate ion

ClO21-ClO1-IO41-IO31-

Iodate ionIO2

1-IO1-

NO4

1-

NO

31-

Nitrate

ion

NO

2

1-

NO

1-

PO

5

3-

PO

4

3-

Phosph

ate

ion

PO

3

3-

PO

2

3-

SO

5

2-

SO

4

2-

Sulf

ate

ion

SO

3

2-

SO

2

2-

1 more oxygen

“normal”

1 less oxygen

2 less oxygenSlide78

Two nonmetals

Multiple-charge cation

Everything else

Roman

numeral

Polyatomic ions OK

Roman numeral

for

name

only

Polyatomic ions

Greek prefixesChargeCriss-CrossRule

RomannumeralOKWhere would you file this?

VCrO4

BaO

CBr4

Nb(ClO

4

)5

SCl

2

Rb

2

SO

4

dinitrogen pentoxide

platinum (IV) iodate

ammonium chlorate

potassium iodide

nitrogen trichloride

manganese (V) sulfide

vanadium (II) chromate

VCrO

4

N

2

O

5

dinitrogen pentoxide

barium oxide

BaO

Pt(IO

3

)

4

platinum (IV) iodate

carbon tetrabromide

CBr

4

NH

4

ClO

3

ammonium chlorate

niobium (V) perchlorate

Nb(ClO

4

)

5

KI

potassium iodide

sulfur dichloride

SCl

2

NCl

3

nitrogen trichloride

rubidium sulfate

Rb

2

SO

4

Mn

2

S

5

manganese (V) sulfideSlide79

Two nonmetals

Multiple-charge cation

Everything else

Roman

numeral

Polyatomic ions

Roman numeral

for

name

only

Polyatomic ions

Greek prefixesChargeCriss-CrossRule

RomannumeralOKWhere would you file this?

VCrO4

dinitrogen pentoxide

BaO

platinum (IV) iodate

CBr

4

ammonium chlorate

Nb(ClO

4

)

5

potassium iodide

SCl

2

nitrogen trichloride

Rb

2

SO

4

manganese (V) sulfideSlide80

Write the

total number of atoms

that make up each compound.

Write the compound formed by the following ions:

1) Al3+ S2- 2) Mg2+ PO43- When a formula is given…write the proper name. When a name is given…write the proper formula. 3) BaO 4) lithium bromide

5) Ni2S3

6) triphosphorus heptoxide 7) N2O5

8) molybdenum (VI) nitride 9) trinitrotoluene (TNT)… CH3C6H2(NO2)3 10) phosphoric acid H3PO4

Extra credit: What is the formula for

plumbic iodide?

(Hint: lead is Pb2+ or Pb4+)Slide81

Write the

total number of atoms

that make up each compound.

Write the compound formed by the following ions:

1) Al3+ S2- 2) Mg2+ PO43- When a formula is given…write the proper name. When a name is given…write the proper formula. 3) BaO 4) lithium bromide

5) Ni2S3

6) triphosphorus heptoxide 7) N2O5

8) molybdenum (VI) nitride 9) trinitrotoluene (TNT)… CH3C6H2(NO2)3 10) phosphoric acid H3PO4

Extra credit: What is the formula for

plumbic iodide?

(Hint: lead is Pb2+ or Pb4+)POP QUIZ