A Working Model?. Written by Karin. Swanson, . Nellie. . Stoeckle. , . Anna. . Ivanova. , . Mikhail. . S. hebalkov. Existing Problem. Due to the large wave of Cubans entering the country, the USA made an agreement in . ID: 469876
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Cuban Immigration Reform: A Working Model?
Written by Karin Swanson, Nellie Stoeckle, Anna Ivanova, Mikhail ShebalkovSlide2
Due to the large wave of Cubans entering the country, the USA made an agreement in September 1994 that would limit the number of incoming Cubans to 20,000 annually.
May 1995, it was announced that the Cubans in Guantanamo would be permitted to enter the USA if they had no criminal history. In 1996, these Cubans were officially admitted as parolees.
Congress amended the trade embargo in
2000 to allow agricultural exports from the United States to Cuba. Total agricultural exports since 2001 reached $3,5 billion as of February 2012.
The change in leadership of both the United States and Cuba was supposed to provide openings for revisions in U.S. policy on Cuban migration. This transfer of power between the Castro brothers led some to question whether there would be much of an opening for renewed migration talks between the United States and Cuba.
Current Legislation in U.S.
DREAM Act, 2001“Wet foot, dry foot policy” “Dusty foot”Less contact with their families (Bush politics)Denial if the entrance to anyone who might be “detrimental” to national interests (Cuban academics, intellectuals, and professionals )
Current legislation in Russia
Restriction to hire immigrants (retail services)Immigrants quotaSimplification of procedures of getting permanent residency for ex-USSR citizensConstruction in Russia/agriculture in the US
Changing Legislation in U.S.
Raúl Castro, brother of Fidel Castro, took over leadership in 2008 and formally assumed position of president in 2011; More liberal, yet still crucial restrictions controlling Cuban immigration, with control still centralized within the government; Second term ends in 2018 - then what? US policy must be flexible to possibility of more conservative successor;
Changing Legislation in Russia
Union State of Russia and Belarus; Provides a common citizenship; 2012 State Duma offered to hire 50 million immigrants to build cities in Siberia; 2012 Putin said that immigration should be simplified for those that know Russian;
This could be your home!
Dataset for modeling
Period: 2007-2011Factors:Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. Gross Domestic Product (GDP).Imports of goods and services (% of GDP).Exports of goods and services (% of GDP).The crude birth rate. The crude death rate. Fertility Rate.Share of urban population to total.The unemployment rate.Population of country.
Correlation analysis: Number of migrated people (% of population).Significant values are marked. PopulationBirth rateDeath rateFertility rateUrban pop.Unemp. rateGDPGNI pcImportsExportsCorrelation-0.230.05-0.130.08-0.240.19-0.33-0.240.540.31Significance99%55%90%76%99%98%99%99%99%99%
Positive correlation stands for positive relation of the factor variable to Number of migrated people (% of population).
Artificial Neural Network
Network configuration: MLP 12-11-1Algorithm to train ANN: BFGS-13Activation function: ExponentialTraining performance: 97.7%Test performance: 83%
Legislative Immigration Proposal
General Plan: U.S. and Russia should focus on simplifying immigration process for highly qualified professionals;Develop immigration policy in connection with economic projects (e.g. Skolkovo in Russia) to fill the domestic sectors that are in demands;Create a government department (e.g. within the INS in the U.S.; FMS in Russia) that uses mathematical modeling;
Specific Legislative Immigration Proposal
Russia:Stricter border control; restrict free migration;Set restrictions of migrants (e.g. Tajikistanis) who want to purchase property to prevent whole communities of immigrants from forming, making further migration easier and limiting assimilation;Language and cultural exam to attract immigrants who will assimilate into society or provide for the benefit of the Russian people;
Specific Legislative Immigration Proposal
United States (based on Immigration Reform published today):Create start-up visa to encourage entrepreneurship, attract the right type of migrant workers (e.g. not just people who will become cheap laborers);Set visa restrictions on individuals, to prevent families from migrating as a unit;Balance number of employment visas between sectors;Develop relationship with Mexico to prevent Cubans from entering through Mexico;
Things to be done:Provide incentives to Cubans who have the qualified skills to meet the requirements of domestic U.S. sectors Policy towards Cuba / Tajikistan must be flexibleU.S. could build a partnership with Russia on the topic of immigration, mentoring the latter on how to address its own immigration issues and thus strengthening US-Russia relations.