Lecture . 8: Agriculture. Overview. Agriculture: An overview. Case Study: The Green Revolution. International institutions. Focus by regions. Case Study: . Cut flowers . in Kenya. Agricultural transition.
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Presentation on theme: "Economic Development"— Presentation transcript:
Agriculture: An overview
Case Study: The Green Revolution
Focus by regions
Agriculture: An overview
2/3 of the world’s poor work in agriculture
Basic nutritional needs not met for 800m people
As much as 80-90% income from developing countries can come from agriculture
As much as 50% GDP derived from agriculture
Role of women:
60-80% labour force (Asia, Africa)
40% labour force (Latin America)Slide4
Agricultural and the Economy: 3 PhasesSlide5
Agriculture: An overview (cont.)
Labour forces mirrored output
in both sectors similar
Greater share of the LDC labour force in agriculture than its share of output
in LDC agriculture
Recap: Is the Malthus’ model applicable?
Agricultural technology and innovationSlide6
Case Study: The Green RevolutionSlide7
Case Study: The Green RevolutionSlide8
Food and Agricultural
World Food Program (WFP)
International Fund for
Focus by Regions: Latin America
1.3% of landowners own approx. 72% of land!
– the land owners
- the (largely) indigenous smallholdings
Medium sized - the family farmsSlide11
Focus by Regions: Asia
Too many people, not enough land…
Focus by Regions: Africa
Especially slash and burn agriculture
More marginal regions in Africa
Slash and Burn AgricultureSlide14
The Sahel BeltSlide15
The Sahel Belt: SenegalSlide16
Focus by Regions: Africa
Low agricultural output:
Human labour as the primary source of physical power
Scarcity of labour during the peak periods of agricultural activity
Population growth is causing increasing pressure on existing land
Agricultural practice needs to become sedentarySlide17
Use of modern inputsSlide18
Horticulture second biggest foreign exchange earner
Supports up to 2 million (7% of population)
Rural based industry
Many employees are young womenSlide20
Case Study: The flowers in KenyaSlide21
labour intensive process
Limited role of government
Kenya a hub for the air freight in east Africa
Case Study: The flowers in KenyaSlide23
Standards and codes of conduct managed by peak industrial body, Kenyan Flower Council
Many workers on seasonal / casual contracts
Only 7% of population
Neoclassical growth, endogenous growth
Needs investigation at microeconomic level
Some inevitable tensions?
Employment v higher wages and better conditions
Growth v environmental sustainabilitySlide25
Low technology, low productivity, low output
Limited access to credit and insuranceSlide26
Illustrating Risk Aversion…Slide27
Staple crops grown for consumption
Cash crops grown for sale
Profits from cash crops used to buy food and reinvestmentSlide28
Role of Government
Monopolies and oligopolies in agricultural input markets
Information gaps, coordination failureSlide29
Role of women
Technology and innovation
Overcome risk aversion
Incentives for farmers
Agricultural extension programs
Reduce costs of agricultural inputs?
Address market failures
Land reform and property rights (next lecture...)
Economic Development - Description
Lecture 8 Agriculture Overview Agriculture An overview Case Study The Green Revolution International institutions Focus by regions Case Study Cut flowers in Kenya Agricultural transition ID: 620957 Download Presentation
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