Understanding Oil. What is oil?. Session 5: Marine Pollution Response: Introduction. Understanding Oil. Oils can be grouped a number of ways:. Persistent or non-persistent oils. Refined product or unrefined oils. ID: 536874
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Incident Management Teams CourseSlide2
What is oil?
Session 5: Marine Pollution Response: IntroductionSlide3
Oils can be grouped a number of ways:Persistent or non-persistent oilsRefined product or unrefined oilsWaxy or non-waxy oilsViscous or non-viscous oils‘Heavy’, ‘medium’ or ‘light’ (Specific Gravity)
Session 5: Marine Pollution Response: IntroductionSlide4
Classification of Oil on Density(as per IMO, ITOPF, US EPA and US Coastguard)
(1) “Non-persistent” oil is defined as any petroleum based oil which consists of hydrocarbon fractions where: (a) at least 50% of by volume, distils at a temperature of 340oC (645oF) and (b) at least 95% by volume, distils at a temperature of 370oC (700oF) when tested by the ASTM Method D86/78 or any subsequent revision thereof.(2) Indicative. Non persistent oils are defined according to Specific Gravity. (3) Heavier than water oils. These vary in formulation.
Non persistent oil
Motor spirit, Condensates
Light crudes, Kerosenes,
Marine diesel, Medium crudes
Heavy fuel oils
: (Density) is an indicator of volatility and hence persistence. (rate of evaporative loss)
: American Petroleum Institute Gravity Scale
: An oil’s tendency to resist flow at a specified temperature. Also an indicator of amenability to dispersant.
: The temperature below which an oil will not flow. Important if the Pour Point of an oil is close to the ambient air and water temperatures.
: The temperature above which there may be sufficient vapor to ignite if exposed to an ignition source. An important health and safety consideration.Slide6
: The tendency of the oil to burn if exposed to an ignition sources. This is a safety consideration.
Asphaltene Content (%)
: An indicator of an oils tendency to form emulsions.
Wax Content (%)
: Indicates potential oil residues and high pour point. This will influence oil spread, evaporative loss and tendency to emulsify.
: How much of the oil will dissolve in the water column on a molecular basis.Slide7
Behaviours of Oil
Wind direction, wind speed
Behaviours of OilSlide10
Physical Dispersion (Laboratory Tank)
Behaviours of OilSlide11
Behaviours of OilSlide12Slide13Slide14Slide15
Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS)
Definition of HNS: As per the OPRC-HNS Protocol, a Hazardous and Noxious Substance is defined as any substance other than oil which, if introduced into the marine environment is likely to create hazards to human health, to harm living resources and marine life, to damage amenities or to interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea.
What is the key intelligence we are seeking at the start of an incident?OSTM – Oil Spill Trajectory Model OSRA – Oil Spill Resource AtlasSDS – Safety Data SheetsApps for hazardous materialsSlide17Slide18Slide19
Incident Management Teams Course
General Response Objectives
Humans safety and health
Habitat and cultural resources
Rare and endangered flora and fauna
Commercial resources such as oyster farms
Amenities such as beaches boat mooring areas
• These priorities are not set in stone apart from human safety and health.Slide21
General Response Objectives
Wider considerations also impact of response objectives including:
Stakeholder Engagement and Advisors
Who are our key stakeholders in a marine oil spill response?
How do we engage with these stakeholders?
All hazards – all agency approach to emergency management