The Dead Sea Scrolls. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hEzxWUEu5kc&playnext=1&list=PLB534D2B03D11E003&deature=results_video. Introduction. Judaism was the first monotheistic religion. Both Christianity and Islam have their roots in Judaism. ID: 287866
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The Dead Sea Scrolls
Judaism was the first monotheistic religionBoth Christianity and Islam have their roots in JudaismSlide4
As of 2010, there were nearly 13.5 million Jews worldwide:
: just under 1 million
Russia and Ukraine
According to the Jewish faith, anyone may be considered to be a Jew if:
1. they were born to a Jewish mother
2. they are a convert to JudaismSlide5
The founder of Judaism was Abraham (Abram)
Abram was born in the Sumerian city of Ur around 1800 B.C.
Abram left Ur, wandered up the Euphrates, and settled in Haran
God called out to Abram, offering to make him the father of a great nation, if he would leave Haran.
Abram took his wife
, left Haran, and eventually settled in the land of CanaanSlide6
Route Abraham took to CanaanSlide7
Abram entered into a covenant with his god, who promised him a son. Abram was re-named Abraham, which means “father of many”
was re-named Sarah, which means “princess”
Abraham had two sons:
= forefather of the Jewish people
= forefather of the Arabic peopleSlide8
Abraham’s great-grandson Joseph led the Hebrews into the land of EgyptThe Hebrews were eventually enslaved by the EgyptiansWere led out of Egypt by Moses. This was known as the Exodus (around 1200 B.C.)Moses led his people back to the land of Canaan. They were given the Ten Commandments by God as their rule of law.Slide9
Kingdom of Israel
Under their great king David, the Hebrew people created a kingdom in Canaan, which was located in modern day Israel and Jordan (around 1000 B.C.)Established Jerusalem as the religious and political capitalThis kingdom grew wealthy and powerful under David’s son, King SolomonSlide10
Kingdom of Israel
Solomon built a magnificent temple to house the Ark of the Covenant, which is said to have contained the Ten CommandmentsSlide11
After Solomon’s death, the Kingdom of Israel experienced a period of conflict and discontent
Split into two kingdoms:
Israel = Northern Kingdom: destroyed by Assyria in 722 B.C.
Judah = Southern Kingdom: conquered by Babylon in 586 B.C.Slide12
Under the Babylonian conquest, the Temple of Solomon was destroyed and the Jews were taken away into captivity
This scattering of the Jews from their homeland was known as the
After Babylon was conquered by Persia (around 500 B.C.) the Jews were allowed to return to their homeland, practice their religion, rebuild the Temple, and reestablish their identity
By the 1
st century B.C., the Jews living in Israel came under the control of Rome. Region was known as JudaeaIn 70 A.D., the Jews revolted against Roman rule. The Temple was destroyed again, and the Jews were again forced into exileAs further punishment, the Romans renamed the area PalestineSlide14
Key Teachings of Judaism
There is only one God
and God provides standards of right and wrong that people should follow. Judaism introduced this belief, called ethical monotheism, to the world
teaches that there is such a thing as “right” and “wrong” and that people have an obligation to do what is right.
Treat others well
the Hebrew Bible states that all people are created in the image of God, Jews believe that every individual is important and deserves to be treated with respect.
Honor the Sabbath.
Judaism teaches that Jews should spend one day a week, the Sabbath, focusing on things other than work and material concerns.
is the origin of the idea of a weekly day of rest that is part of many religions and is widely followed in many parts of the world.Slide15
Key Teachings of Judaism
Judaism teaches that people can communicate with God through prayer.
observant Jews have daily prayers in the morning, afternoon, and evening, and also pray
Judaism teaches that studying the Hebrew Bible and other Jewish texts leads to wisdom and good deeds, so Jewish culture emphasizes the importance of learning.
Land of Israel is Judaism’s most important spiritual center.
of the events in sacred Jewish scripture occurred there. Judaism’s most sacred sites are there, including Jerusalem, which is its holiest city and the site where the Jewish Temple once stood.Slide16
– Jewish places of worship
– the most sacred text in Judaism
– along with Hebrew Bible, the foundation of Jewish ethics and religious practicesSlide17
– belief in one God and that God wants humans to lead moral lives
– ancestral homeland of Jewish people and site of Judaism’s holiest places
The Hebrew Bible -
adopted as Old Testament by Christianity
– idea that individuals and groups should receive fair treatment in all areas of society
– Jewish religious leaders
– forced exile of the Jews from Israel; scattered all over the worldSlide19
Sects of Judaism
– most traditional branch; emphasizes observance of moral and ritual obligations
– not as strict on ritual laws
– middle ground; emphasizes the study of traditional Jewish texts
– believes Judaism is also a civilization as well as a religion; still evolvingSlide20
– day of rest: sundown Friday until nightfall Saturday
– Jewish New Year; reflect on past actions and think on how to improve
– Day of Atonement; fasting and prayer
– fall harvest festival; build tents which they adorn with fruits and vegetablesSlide21
– Festival of Lights; observed by lighting a special candleholder called a
– give money to the poor; exchange gifts with friends; eat fruit-filled cookies; remembers foiling a plot to kill Jews in ancient Persia
– celebrates deliverance of Jews from slavery in Egypt
– commemorates giving of Jewish law; observed by staying up all night to study!Slide22