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Nervous System Nervous System Design 2 main section C entral

Nervous System Nervous System Design 2 main section C entral N ervous S ystem P eripheral N ervous System   C entral N ervous S ystem  (CNS) brain and spinal cord.  encased in skull and vertebral column to protect

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Nervous System Nervous System Design 2 main section C entral






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Nervous System

Nervous System Design 2 main sectionC entral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous System

 C entral Nervous S ystem (CNS) brain and spinal cord.  encased in skull and vertebral column to protect them

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) All of the nerves going to and from the central nervous system

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Sensory fibers info from the body to the central nervous system  General senses  spread around the body   Special senses   special sensory organs .

  motor fibers deliver information from the central nervous system to the body. somatic nervous system  skeletal muscles motor neurons . 

Autonomic Nervous S ystem  smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands. Homeostasis sympathetic (alert, fight of flight) and parasympathetic (relaxed, rest and digest) nervous systems balance with each other

Neuron Neurons -the cells which can send electrical impulses Most of the neurons are found in the central nervous system.

Neuron Cell B ody- contains the nucleus and most of the cell's organelles

Neuron The neuron lacks one organelle which other body cells have, the centriole.  The centriole allows the cell to reproduce.  As a result, neurons are unable to multiply to replace any neurons that are lost or damaged .

Neuron   nerve fibers  transmit electrical impulses. 2 types dendrites and axons.

Neuron A xon  impulses away from the cell body.Message to the body for action only one axon associated with each neuron.  end of the axon may be split Each end enlarged terminal bulb. Terminal bulb releases neurotransmitters - chemicals that tell the other cell what to do .

Neuron Dendrites  impulses towards the cell body of the neuron. Many per neuronInfo sent from nerve receptors.  

Neurons 3 basic types Number of dentrites varies

Multipolar neurons- single axon and many dendrites. Most common type of neuron in the CNS .

Bipolar neurons have one axon and one dendrite, Generally opposite sides.  typically found in the special sense organs (e.g. the eye, ear, and nose ).

Unipolar neurons have a single fiber which exits the cell body then splits into two parts.  One part serves as the axon while the other part serves as the dendrite.  The central stalk is used for impulses going in either direction (to or from the cell body ).

Neuroglia Neuroglia  support cells of the nervous system .

Microglia   small, phagocytic .  brain's microbial defense mechanism.  consume bacteria and viruses that enter the brain tissue clean up damaged tissue too.    

Astrocytes  blood/brain barrier. Materials moving from the blood to the neurons must first pass through the astrocyte. Toxic material will not be passed to neuronsWill die to protect neuron if need be

E pendymal cells form  cerebrospinal fluid (fluid is shock absorber) fluid is formed within chambers in the interior of the brain tissue. 

E pendymal cells flows through several tunnels until it reaches the outside of the brain and spinal cord tissues. Continuously made and reabsorbed

Schwann cells and the Oligodendroglia.  form the myelin sheath around some of the nerve fibers (axons or dendrites). 

M yelin Sheath insulating wrapper that covers large areas of a nerve fiber.  wrap in a jelly-roll fashion around the nerve fiber. Many line up end to end down a neuron fiber

Oligodendroglia form myelin in the CNSSchwann cell form myelin in the PNSmyelinated fiber has myelineunmyelinated fiber no myeline

Nodes of Ranvier. small spaces between the cells

Myelinated fibers send impulses more rapidly

At birth, the myelin sheath is just beginning to form.  By age two, most of the myelin sheath is in place

Multiple Sclerosis  (MS), the myelin sheath is slowly deteriorating. Devastating effect on body function Possibly autoimmune 

Neuron At RestUnequal ions on sides of membrane at rest Excessive  sodium (Na) ions (+) outside of the nerve fiber Few Na+ insidemembrane is not permeable to Na+.  Also excessive proteins on inside of membraneMembrane is very negative on inside Sending an Electrical Signal See hand out 

Types of Impulse Transmission Impulse can go towards nerve body or away dendrite or axon

Continuous Conductionoccurs in unmyelinated fibers. very slow because each segment of the nerve fiber must be depolarized. Long fibers (like 3 ft) takes as long as ½ a second   Types of Impulse Transmission

  Saltatory ConductionMyelinated fiber transmission. extremely rapid about 1/60 the time for the same length of unmyelinated fiber Types of Impulse Transmission

  Saltatory Conductiononly the exposed fiber at the nodes of Ranvier needs to be depolarized. Signal skips from node to node. Types of Impulse Transmission

Synapse Synapse- a junction between a neuron and another cell.Cell could be another neuron or a body cell.  neuron does not actually come in contact with the other cell. 

Synapse S ynaptic Gap or Cleft- between the two cells.  neurotransmitters- chemical messengers between the gaps released by the terminal bulb of the neuron bind to receptors located on the membrane of the other cell Axon terminal Vesicles Synaptic cleft Action potential arrives Synapse Axon of transmitting neuron Receiving neuron

Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine   PNS / some CNSUsed to stimulate skeletal muscles and visceral smooth muscle Axon terminal Vesicles Synaptic cleft Action potential arrives Synapse Axon of transmitting neuron Receiving neuron Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane Synaptic cleft Ion channels Receiving neuron Transmitting neuron

Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine   Inhibits cardiac muscle and multiunit smooth muscleStimulates secretions from most glands and stimulates impulse transmission in other neurons.

Neurotransmitters Norepinephrine PNS / some CNSstimulates contraction of cardiac and multiunit smooth muscle

Neurotransmitters Norepinephrine Inhibits contraction of visceral smooth muscle.  No effect on skeletal muscle.  Inhibits secretion by most glands and inhibits impulse transmission in other neurons.

Neurotransmitters   Dopamine  and GABA (gamma amino butyric acid)CNS inhibit impulses to neurons controlling certain muscle movements.  

Neurotransmitters Endorphins  and  Enkephalins CNSblock, or inhibit, transmission of pain impulses. Hundreds of times more powerful than morphine

Neural Networks Neural networks  - formed when several neurons link together to form a pathway. critical to the functioning of the body. different types of neural networks. examples: divergent circuit , a single neuron sends impulses to several other neurons.  This allows information to be disseminated to many areas simultaneously to allow a coordination of activities . convergent   circuit , several neurons send information to a single neuron.  This type of circuit will allow information from a number of sources to be processed in one central location . reverberating circuit  cycles the impulse back through the neural network.  This continues to restimulate the neurons near the beginning of the neural network and keeps the information cycling through the network.  This type of circuit is involved in short-term memory.