approaches and tools

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approaches and tools




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Presentations text content in approaches and tools

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approaches and tools

NASC

accountability

Gyan

Laxmi

Shrestha

Tara Prasad

Kharel

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Session Objectives

At the end of the session the participants will be able to:Explain the concept of accountability Explain reasons why accountability is importantAnalyse approaches of accountabilityCreate linkages between accountability and public service deliveryIdentify range of social accountability tools in practice

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Session Outline

Importance and implication of being accountableApproaches of accountabilityHow accountability improves public service delivery? Accountability tools in practice

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Group Activity: Case Studies

In flip chart, make a poster to show characteristics of “absent accountability” - using examples from the case study. Discuss - What are the obligations of the service providers? 20 minutes for group work

In flip chart, make a poster to show characteristics of “present accountability” - using examples from the case study. Discuss - What are the obligations of the service providers?20 minutes for group work

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Groups 1& 2 - “Fatima”

Groups 3 & 4 -

“District Education Officer

Panchthar

Slide6

Key Learning Points

Citizens are entitled to receive public services and have rights to hold civil servants accountable. Civil servants need to be proactive even if people are unable to hold them accountable.The human cost of unaccountable governance is manifolds higher (especially to WPEs) than the economic cost.

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A single person can make the difference if he/she holds him/herself accountable. An accountable civil servant can create favourable environment to promote accountability.Power dynamics, linked to socio-economic and cultural factors affect relationships between service providers, users and other actors – which in turn determines who can influence the quality of a service,

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Key Learning Points (

Contd

…)

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Key Learning Points (Contd…)

The poor and disadvantaged tend to have less ability to influence the quality of services, The quality of services depends on the relationships between the “providers”, e.g. government, and the “user” e.g. citizens,The quality of services depends not only on supply (by providers) but also on the ability of citizens to demand services,Proactive role of state is essential for ensuring the access of WPEs on public services

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What is Accountability?

Is answerability, a key component of governanceIs the acknowledgement and assumption of responsibility for actionsCan be defined as the obligation of power-holders to account for or take responsibility for their actions.Government organisations, administrators are accountable to citizens, users of public services and the law

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Accountability and Obligation 

Every accountability relationship begins with an obligation. If there is no obligation, there is no accountability to enforce. When political candidates are elected to public office and government officials accept executive positions, they are not supposed to have free supremacy to do as they wish.

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Importance of Accountability

Better governance Effective and Efficient public service delivery Engaging citizens Ensuring rights of WPEEmpowering WPEs

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Government Officials/power holders are responsible for

Their conduct - they must obey the law and not abuse their powers. Their performance - they must serve the public interest in an efficient, effective and fair manner. “All states have some form of mechanisms to promote or ensure accountability of public actors for effective PSD”

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An absence of accounting means an absence of accountability

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Social Accountability

Civic engagement in the process of making state accountableOrdinary citizens participate directly or indirectly in holding service providers to be accountablePublic officials are called on to inform stakeholders and to justify to them their behavior, actions and results.

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Approaches of Accountability

Individual: ethical, personal obligationInstitutional: political, administrative, legalCollective: civil society, informal group, community

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Media - A part of Accountability?

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Increases awareness in public about their rights

Alerts civil servants about their duties

Monitors civil service process

Creates campaigns about anti-corruption

Evaluates action based on prevailing laws

Plays vital role to make government and service provider accountable

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Accountability to improve PSD

Empowerment, awareness, experience sharing

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Service Provider(Individuals)

Public Institution (Structure and system)

Service Receivers(Collective Form: Society, WPEs, Community of Practice)

Social Accountability

Improved public service delivery

Revisit, restructure

Capacity building

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Accountability Relationship

Policy Makers

Service Receiver

Service Providers

Voice

Client power

Service compact

Indirect channel

Direct channel

Intermediary

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Accountability in Action

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Citizen

State

(Central and Local)

IntermediaryCBOsMediaPrivate sectorI/NGOs Political partiesCivil society

Citizen

State

(Central and Local)

Intermediary

CBOs

Media

Private sector

I/NGOs

Political parties

Civil society

Expected

Reality

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How can Government be more accountable to WPEs

 Proper utilization of the government machinery in implementation of law and order Strong reward for carrying out exemplary work and punishment for not fulfilling duties Proper allocation of resources Internalization of system and processSupport Revision and reformulation of existing lawsAttitudinal change towards the issues of WPE Capacity building of government Government employees should be honest Govt. should be sensitive and responsible towards WPE 

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The philosophy : SA

The philosophy behind social accountability centers on the role of empowerment and information in enhancing government commitment and service delivery.Using Social Accountability tools

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Tools of Social Accountability

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Video

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Tools of Social Accountability

1. Information Tools2. Accountability and Integrity Tools3. Participatory Development Tools

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1.Information Tools

Citizen Charter Check List of Entitlements (Citizens are alerted to the various rights and entitlements that they have through different government bodies ) Budgets of Local Bodies (VDC, DDC & Municipality) Right to Information (Citizens have the right to demand and receive information ) Check list of Relevant Laws, Policies, Regulations that affect a Citizen's Life

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2. Accountability and Integrity Tools

Civic Education (The value of education about civic matters, how the state works) Public Expenditure Tracking (learning of the size of the budget , how the budget is spent ) Check list of Standards & Indicators( formulated quality standards for public services) Community Score Card (can be used by both service providers and service receivers for effectiveness of public services) Citizen Report Card (How those who receive services are satisfied or dissatisfied with those services and can report this to the responsible authorities) Public Hearing Public Audit (seek transparency and accountability in regard to investment in local development projects ) Public Revenue Monitoring (monitor the income that is being received by government bodies Citizen Complaint Structures( complaints against wrong-doers )

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3. Participatory Development Tools

Multi-stakeholder Groups( together to achieve the common agreed objectives) Participatory Planning Participatory Budgeting Community Led Procurement (citizens role in procuring goods and services) Declaration of Assets Understanding Conflict of Interest (possible conflict between the public and personal interest) Integrity Pact (agree combined to avoid corruption)

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Social accountability tools

Promote citizen's engagementBuild trust towards public service providersIncrease transparency & access to informationBuilds Standardization of public service deliveryEnhances accountability and citizen oversight

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Discussion

Accountable governmentUnaccountable government

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Conclusion

Obligation of state and public servants towards society and people is important Absence of accountability breaks the social contractNeed to focus more on WPEsAccountability is meaningful when combined with responsiveness and integrity

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Thank you

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