Pandemic Preparedness Influenza: Protecting Your Employees - PowerPoint Presentation

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1 PPT13001 Bureau of Workers Compensation PA Training for Health amp Safety PATHS Seasonal Influenza Pandemic Flu HistoryPast Pandemics Treatment amp Prevention ID: 775035 Download Presentation

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Slide1

Pandemic Preparedness

Influenza: Protecting Your Employees

1

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Bureau of Workers’ Compensation

PA Training for Health & Safety (PATHS)

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Seasonal InfluenzaPandemic FluHistory/Past PandemicsTreatment & PreventionPreparation/Personal Planning

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Overview

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Seasonal Influenza

Illness caused by the influenza virusExtremely contagious and spreads quickly to others. Symptoms vary from person to person Occurs every year, usually in the fall and winter killing 36,000 people in U.S.

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Cause

The influenza virus, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses. Commonly confused with a cold, the flu is a much more severe disease and caused by a different virus.

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Infection

The flu virus binds onto sugars on the surfaces of epithelial cells such as nose, throat, and lungs of mammals and intestines of birds.

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Symptoms & Diagnosis of Seasonal Flu

Chills

Body aches, especially throat and joints

Coughing and sneezing

Extreme fever

Fatigue, headache, and nasal congestion

Though similar symptoms occur with a cold, they are much more severe with the flu!

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Flu Virus

Incubation

Symptomatic (Sick)

Recovering

Work, etc.

Work/Home/Hospital

Back to work, etc

Day 0

Day 11

Day 4

Day 15

DANGER OF INFECTION

Day 2

Infectious (Shedding Virus)

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Flu Prevention

Get the flu vaccine each year due to high mutation rate of the virus.Practice good hygiene and personal health habits.Cover your mouth when sneezing and wash your hands regularly as the virus spreads through aerosols.Stay at home when sick.

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Flu Treatment

Bed restHydration-with eight ounces of fluid every hourAcetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxenAvoid aspirin when dealing with childrenSince the flu is a virus, antibiotics won’t work unless there is a secondary bacterial infection.

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Medical Treatment

Persistent feverProductive coughIncreasing difficulty breathingImprovement, followed by relapse

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What is Pandemic Flu?

Epidemic: serious outbreak in a single community, population or regionPandemic: an epidemic spreading around the world affecting hundreds of thousands of people, across many countriesPandemic flu: a pandemic that results from an influenza virus strain that humans have not been previously exposed to

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• A disease outbreak that spreads rapidly and affects many people world wide• Characteristics - New virus that spreads easily as most people are susceptible (no natural resistance or immunity) - Effective human to human transmission is necessary - Measured by how fast the virus spreads - Wide geographic spread• Not predictable• Outbreaks lasting 8-12 weeks with 1-3 week wave cycles

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Pandemic Influenza

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• Pandemics occur in multiple waves of disease outbreaks• The first wave in a local area is likely to last six to eight weeks• The time between pandemic waves varies and can not be easily predicted.• Anticipate 1-3 waves

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Pandemic Waves

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History

Name of pandemic Date DeathsAsiatic Flu1889-18901 millionSpanish Flu1918-192040 -100 millionAsian Flu1957-19581 - 1.5 millionHong Kong Flu1968-19690.75 - 1 million

Information taken from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/influenza

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Past Pandemics

Occurs unpredictably, not always in winter

Variations in:

Case fatality rates (number of people diagnosed with a disease that die from that disease)

Severity of illness

Pattern of illness (ages most severely affected)

Rapid surge in number of cases over brief period of time

Tend to occur in waves - May only be one wave

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Today vs 1918

TodayModern travelMany areas more densely populatedPopulation exceeds 6 billion1918World War I (civilian and military overcrowding)Public information withheldPopulation approximately 1.8 billion

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Perspective

2001 terrorist attack with anthrax - killed five people2002 outbreak of West Nile Virus - killed 284 people nationally in six months2003 SARS outbreak - killed over 800 people world wide - froze Asian economies - frightened millions of people into wearing masks on the streets

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Becoming a Pandemic

For pandemic influenza to occur, three conditions must be met:

A new virus which humans are not immune

emerges

The virus causes severe human illness or

death in humans

The virus spreads easily from person to person worldwide

H5N1 has two of the three today.

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H5N1 Status

Interpandemic

Larger clusters, localized

Limited spread among humans

Pandemic

Pandemic alert

Phase

1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4

Phase 5

Phase 6

New virus in humans

Little/no spread among humans

Small clusters, localized

Limited spread among humans

Increased and sustained spread in general human population

No new virus in humans

Animal viruses low risk to humans

No new virus in humansAnimal viruses low risk to humans

Current H5N1 status

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• Crisis for extended period of time in multiple locations• Daily routines will be affected from personal, community, and professional changes - Isolation/quarantine guidelines or requirements? - Cancellation of public events and schools? - Non-essential work activities limited? - Commerce Patterns changed?

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Expectations of Pandemics

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• Elements of personal action will be required• Absenteeism from pandemic flu expected to be 40-60%• Lost availability for those who are ill (or caring for ill family) is projected at 2-4 weeks

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Expectations of Pandemics

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Pandemic Possibility

World Health Organization assures us that there will be another influenza pandemic.Unknown when it will occur/how severe the next pandemic will beUnknown what the organism will be

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• A vaccine to protect people from pandemic flu is not available now.• A vaccine may not be available at the start of a flu pandemic (~ 6-8 months after start).• The best protection is to practice healthy hygiene to stay well now and during a flu pandemic.

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Vaccination?

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Medications During Pandemic Flu

Antiviral MedicationsCan prevent complications if taken within first 48 hours of illnessMay not be effective against a pandemic flu virusExtremely limited supply nowWould be prioritized Initial use probably only for treatment, not prophylaxis

Antiviral Medications

Amatadine

(

Symmetrel

)

Rimantadine

(

Flumadine

)

Zanamivir (Relenza)

Oseltamivir

(Tamiflu)

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Pandemic Disruptions

Significant disruption of infrastructureTransportationSchoolsBusinessesMedical care UtilitiesPolice and fire protectionCommunicationsLimited to no assistance from State and Federal Governments due to nation-wide impact

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Infection Control

Hand HygieneWash hands regularly with soap & waterIf no water available: 60%-95% alcohol-based sanitizer Cover your cough strategyEnvironmental cleaning1:10 bleach solutionEPA registered disinfectantGloves & surgical masks

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Personal Planning

Stockpiling up to 30 days of water, food, supplies, medicinesSocial distancingPractice all the same behaviors to prevent seasonal fluStay at Home Toolkits

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Preparedness

P

repare yourself – disaster training & volunteerism.

R

emember to get enough sleep.

E

xercise regularly.

P

revent the spread of infection – wash hands regularly, cough/sneeze into tissue, keep your hands away from your nose/mouth.

P

ut out cigarettes.

A

nnual flu shots.

N

utritious eating.

F

amily plan and kit.

L

ook for information about pandemic flu.

U

tensils, food and beverages should not be shared.

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Health & Safety Training Specialists

1171 South Cameron Street, Room 324Harrisburg, PA 17104-2501(717) 772-1635RA-LI-BWC-PATHS@pa.gov

Like us on Facebook! - https://www.facebook.com/BWCPATHS

Contact Information

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Questions

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Bibliography

Influenza (flu), Mayo Clinic

www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/flu/basics/definitions

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/influenza

Shom More....
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