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Principles of Architecture

Mrs. Araujo-Flores. Objectives. You will understand that architectural design is composed of elements.. You will know the definitions of these elements.. You will be able to identify structures that illustrate these elements..

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Principles of Architecture






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Slide1

Principles of Architecture

Mrs. Araujo-FloresSlide2

Objectives

You will understand that architectural design is composed of elements.You will know the definitions of these elements.You will be able to identify structures that illustrate these elements.Slide3

Elements of Architecture:

The Basics of Beautiful DesignWhat elements and principles of architecture do architects include in the design of structures? Slide4

The Basics of Architecture

Structure Anything that is built or constructed and has a plan.Seagram Bldg NYCSlide5

The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Post and LintelMethod of construction in which vertical posts support horizontal lintel, beam. StonehengeSlide6

The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

ColumnsVertical, round pillar that supports an arch or entablature

ParthenonSlide7

Three types of Greek Columns

Doric-simple capitalIonic-scrolled capital

Corinthian

-fancy capitalSlide8

Doric Ionic CorinthianSlide9

Corinthian Column CapitalSlide10

The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Colonnade Line of arches or columns bearing a horizontal entablature.

St. Peter’s Square

ParthenonSlide11

Entablature

The parts of an order between the column capital and the roof or pediment.It is divided into three parts: architrave, frieze, and cornice.Slide12

The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Arch Vaulted wall opening that can span large spaces.

Coliseum Slide13

Pont du GardSlide14

St. Paul’s CathedralSlide15

Types of Arches Slide16

The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Domea large hemispherical roof or ceilingarches are jointed at the top and legs form a circlecreates more expansive space inside a structurebase can be circular or angled

Hagia Sophia – square baseSlide17

Dome of the RockCircular BaseSlide18

The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Spire a tapering roof or pyramidal construction surmounting a tower

Salisbury Cathedral - EnglandSlide19

The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Cantilever Horizontally projecting beam or part of a structure supported only at one end.

Falling WaterSlide20

CantileverSlide21

The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

ButtressA projecting structure for support to give stability to a load-bearing wall. Counteracts lateral thrust. Slide22

The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Flying ButtressArch commonly seen on the exterior of Gothic cathedralsUsed to support high stone walls by transmitting force to an exterior

support.

Counteracts lateral thrust.

Notre Dame – Paris FranceSlide23
Slide24

Buttress Flying ButtressSlide25

1.Slide26

2.Slide27

3.Slide28

4.Slide29

5.Slide30

Media or Materials

-what the structure is made fromSlide31

Function-purpose for which the building was originally designed

The function of a building may change over time but the original purpose still dominates the design. Slide32

Context

PhysicalThe area on which the building is constructed. When considering the context of a building, you must also look at the environment.

Japanese SchoolSlide33

Physical ContextConstruction of the tower

occurred in three stages across 344 yearsThe tower's tilt began during construction, caused by an inadequate foundation on ground too soft on one side to properly support the structure's weight.

Leaning Tower of PisaSlide34

Context

Historical/CulturalThe time, place, and culture that influenced the creation of the building.Todaji Buddhist Temple

Nara, Japan

All wood constructionSlide35

The Elements of Architecture

LineWhere two parts come togetherGreat PyramidSlide36

The Elements of Architecture

Color

Colors

used on the interior or exterior of the building.

Dome of the RockSlide37

The Elements of Architecture

Shape/FormThe outline of the building if viewed from the air AND from the ground.St. Paul’s Cathedral - aerial viewSlide38

Shape/FormSlide39

The Elements of Architecture

TextureHow the building feels or looks Can be the interior or exteriorGuggenheimSlide40

The Principles of Architecture

SpaceThe area in and around a building

LouvreSlide41

The Principles of Architecture

Balance Distribution of weightEiffel TowelSlide42

The Principles of Architecture

Rhythm/Repetition/PatternRepeated use of an elementRaphael’s LoggiaSlide43

The Principles of Architecture

EmphasisCalling attention to one partThis is achieved by using the elements and principles of architecture

Dome of the RockSlide44

The Principles of Architecture

Variety/Contrastthe use of differing elements

Villa rotundaSlide45

The Principles of Architecture

Proportioncomparison of size of parts and size of the wholeSlide46

The Principles of Architecture

ScaleScale-sized compared to peoplePantheon - Rome Slide47

The Principles of Architecture

UnityUse of similar elements to tie the work togetherLeaning Tower of Pisa