Principles of Architecture

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Principles of Architecture




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Presentations text content in Principles of Architecture

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Principles of Architecture

Mrs. Araujo-Flores

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Objectives

You will understand that architectural design is composed of elements.You will know the definitions of these elements.You will be able to identify structures that illustrate these elements.

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Elements of Architecture:The Basics of Beautiful Design

What elements and principles of architecture do architects include in the design of structures?

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The Basics of Architecture

Structure Anything that is built or constructed and has a plan.

Seagram Bldg NYC

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The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Post and LintelMethod of construction in which vertical posts support horizontal lintel, beam.

Stonehenge

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The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

ColumnsVertical, round pillar that supports an arch or entablature

Parthenon

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Three types of Greek Columns

Doric

-simple capital

Ionic

-scrolled capital

Corinthian

-fancy capital

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Doric Ionic Corinthian

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Corinthian Column Capital

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The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Colonnade Line of arches or columns bearing a horizontal entablature.

St. Peter’s Square

Parthenon

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Entablature

The parts of an order between the column capital and the roof or pediment.It is divided into three parts: architrave, frieze, and cornice.

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The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Arch Vaulted wall opening that can span large spaces.

Coliseum

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Pont du Gard

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St. Paul’s Cathedral

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Types of Arches

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The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Domea large hemispherical roof or ceilingarches are jointed at the top and legs form a circlecreates more expansive space inside a structurebase can be circular or angled

Hagia Sophia – square base

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Dome of the RockCircular Base

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The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Spire a tapering roof or pyramidal construction surmounting a tower

Salisbury Cathedral - England

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The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Cantilever Horizontally projecting beam or part of a structure supported only at one end.

Falling Water

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Cantilever

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The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

ButtressA projecting structure for support to give stability to a load-bearing wall. Counteracts lateral thrust.

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The Basics of Architecture:Basic Structures

Flying ButtressArch commonly seen on the exterior of Gothic cathedralsUsed to support high stone walls by transmitting force to an exterior support. Counteracts lateral thrust.

Notre Dame – Paris France

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Buttress Flying Buttress

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1.

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2.

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3.

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4.

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5.

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Media or Materials-what the structure is made from

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Function-purpose for which the building was originally designedThe function of a building may change over time but the original purpose still dominates the design.

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Context

PhysicalThe area on which the building is constructed. When considering the context of a building, you must also look at the environment.

Japanese School

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Physical ContextConstruction of the tower occurred in three stages across 344 yearsThe tower's tilt began during construction, caused by an inadequate foundation on ground too soft on one side to properly support the structure's weight.

Leaning Tower of Pisa

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Context

Historical/CulturalThe time, place, and culture that influenced the creation of the building.

Todaji Buddhist Temple Nara, Japan All wood construction

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The Elements of Architecture

LineWhere two parts come together

Great Pyramid

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The Elements of Architecture

Color

Colors used on the interior or exterior of the building.

Dome of the Rock

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The Elements of Architecture

Shape/FormThe outline of the building if viewed from the air AND from the ground.

St. Paul’s Cathedral - aerial view

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Shape/Form

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The Elements of Architecture

TextureHow the building feels or looks Can be the interior or exterior

Guggenheim

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The Principles of Architecture

SpaceThe area in and around a building

Louvre

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The Principles of Architecture

Balance Distribution of weight

Eiffel Towel

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The Principles of Architecture

Rhythm/Repetition/PatternRepeated use of an element

Raphael’s Loggia

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The Principles of Architecture

EmphasisCalling attention to one partThis is achieved by using the elements and principles of architecture

Dome of the Rock

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The Principles of Architecture

Variety/Contrastthe use of differing elements

Villa rotunda

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The Principles of Architecture

Proportioncomparison of size of parts and size of the whole

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The Principles of Architecture

ScaleScale-sized compared to people

Pantheon - Rome

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The Principles of Architecture

UnityUse of similar elements to tie the work together

Leaning Tower of Pisa


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