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Revolts in Latin America
Revolts in Latin America

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Slide1

Revolts in Latin America

Chapter 20Slide2

Latin American Background

Peoples of Latin America

Peninsulares

-

Spanish-born whites (highest class)

Creole

- colonial-born whites (minority)

Mestizo

- mixed European and Indigenous descent (majority)

Mulatto

- mixed European and African descent

Indios

- Indigenous peoples of Latin AmericaSlide3

Ideologies

Conservatives vs. Liberals

Conservatives

Want to return to the way things had been before the revolutions in Europe.

In Latin America, want to maintain the status quo.

In favor or monarchies.

Liberals

First liberals are the bourgeoisie (middle class)

Pushed for rights of middle class (later extends to all men)

Naturals rights

Separation of Powers

Fueled by nationalism

Change over time (become increasingly more liberal throughout the 1800s)Slide4

Liberals and Conservatives

Liberals: (Federalists)

Conservatives: (

Unitarios

)

Free

trade

Limited

government

Personal libertyNatural RightsSlave emancipationPrivate propertyPublic educationFederal systemSeparation of church and state

Centralized

government

Preservation

of wealth

and social

influence of Church

Preservation

of

privileges of

the clergy and army

Preservation

of

the separate

Indian “republics”

Legal

and

social restrictions

on the

castas

(Mestizos)

Preservation

of

hierarchical societySlide5

Prince Metternich

Conservative leader

Sought to suppress revolutionary ideas

Urged monarchs to oppose freedom of the press, crush protests in their own countries, and send troops to douse the flames of rebellion in neighboring lands.Slide6
Slide7

Enlightenment in Latin America

Latin Americans were inspired by the Enlightenment.

Read works of Enlightenment thinkers.

Inspired by colonists in US overthrow of British rule.

Read Declaration of Independence

Read Constitution

Napoleon invades Spain which ignites widespread rebellion in Latin America.Slide8

Slaves Win Freedom

In Haiti (Hispaniola at the time)

Slaves worked on Sugarcane plantations

Nearly half a million slaves

Worked in harsh conditions

1791, slaves revolt

Lead by Toussaint

L’Ouverture

Self-educated, former slave

1798, Slavery was abolished and Toussaint’s forces controlled most of the island.1802, Napoleon sends large army to reconquerApril, France agreed to a truce, then they capture Toussaint.Still, France is forced to surrender in 1803 because of yellow feverIsland declares independence in 1804 as HaitiSlide9

Mexico

Father Miguel Hidalgo

Creole priest

Raised army of mestizos and

indios

Supported initially by creoles until talk of abolition and change in conditions of Native Americans.

After early success, Hidalgo is captured and executed.

Father Jose Morelos

Mestizo; took the lead in revolution

Revolution seemed to be ending until liberals in Spain forced the king to issue a constitutionConservative creole Agustin de Iturbide worried liberal reforms would be made in colonies. Decided to join revolutionaries.Overthrows the Spanish and declares himself Emperor (liberals quickly topple his would-be monarchy though)Slide10

Simon Bolivar

Creole inspired by the American and French Revolutions

Wanted own independence

Saw Napoleon’s occupation of Spain as a signal to act

1810, led an uprising in Venezuela; establishes republic

Quickly toppled by conservatives

Led to years of civil war

Exiled twice to Haiti

Plan to lead army over Andes and attack Bogota

First established alliances with llaneros, Venezuelan cowboys.August 1819, he took Bogota from the SpanishContinued success; established Gran ColombiaEcuador, Colombia, and VenezuelaWill split up though into 4 countries (Panama is 4th)Slide11

Other Revolutions

Jose de San Martin of Argentina

Helped Argentina and Chile gain freedom

Turned army over to Bolivar and allowed Bolivar to win the final victories against Spain.

Brazil

Controlled by Portugal

Royal family fled to Brazil when conquered by Napoleon

When the King returned to Portugal his son, Dom Pedro, stayed behind to rule.

“If Brazil demands independence, proclaim it yourself and put the crown on your own head.”- King to Dom Pedro

1822 this happened.Brazil remained a monarchy until 1889Slide12

After the Revolution

Ideologies will change

Creole elites who were liberal in fighting the revolutions will become conservative.

Mestizos will be the new liberal.

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Revolts in Latin America - Description

Chapter 20 Latin American Background Peoples of Latin America Peninsulares Spanishborn whites highest class Creole colonialborn whites minority Mestizo mixed European and Indigenous descent majority ID: 500769 Download Presentation

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liberals latin conservatives america latin liberals america conservatives creole army revolutions liberal independence preservation brazil spain slaves napoleon conservative

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