The Classical Era (1750-1820)
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The Classical Era (1750-1820)

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The Classical Era (1750-1820)




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Presentation on theme: "The Classical Era (1750-1820)"— Presentation transcript:

Slide1

The Classical Era (1750-1820)

Year 10 IGCSE

October 2009

Slide2

The Age of Enlightenment

Believed in progress, rising middle class

American and French revolutions

Humanitarian Ideals/reason and knowledge

Liberty, Equality and fraternity!

Slide3

Musical Style

Polyphonic texture

to

simple melodies

Light and graceful music (style gallant)

Epitome of classical music 1770-1820Music printing and increase amateur performancesOpera and concerto grosso becomes symphonySuite became sonata

Slide4

Elements of Music Characteristics

Changes of mood

Can be sudden (unlike Baroque) but unified

Rhythm

Flexible (sudden or gradual)

TextureHomophonic – but can change, more vertical schemesMelodyTuneful and sometimes borrowedBalanced and symmetricalDynamicsRange and not just terraced dynamics, crescendos usedpiano instead of harpsichord (1775) – forte piano

Basso Continuo

Obsolete – more amateur friendly – rid improvising

Slide5

Standard Orchestra

Strings, Woodwinds, Brass, Percussion

Larger number of musicians (25-60)

Specific timbres considered

Continuo disappeared

Conductor with baton and clarinet!

More balanced between strings and winds

Orchestra more like that of today

Slide6

Baroque Orchestra

Slide7

Classical Orchestra

Slide8

Modern Orchestra

Slide9

Form

4 movements usually

1. Fast

2. Slow

3. Dance-related movement

4. FastSymphony = 4 movements, orchestra

string quartets = 4 movements, 2 violins, viola, cello

Sonata = one or two instruments (most formal, developed by Haydn and Mozart)

CONTRASTING THEMES in one movement

BALANCE OF SECTIONS (tension resolved)

Slide10

Life in Classical Period

Composers affected – breaking free from control

Haydn

Mozart

Beethoven

More public concerts – spread through Europe

Middle class people started playing instruments

More demand for printed music

More comic, vulgar

Slide11

Sonata Allegro Form

Single movement form – usually the form of the 1

st

movement of symphony, quartet or sonata

3

sections:ABAExposition:

Development

Recapitulation

CODA

Listen to

Slide12

Mozart Symphony No. 40 in G Minor 4

th

Movement

Notes:

Slide13

Theme and Variations

Independent piece or as a movement of a symphony, sonata, or string quartet

BASIC IDEA repeated and changed

This idea can be borrowed or composed

BASIC STRUCTURE:

Listen to: Haydn’s Symphony No. 94 in G Major 2nd Movement

Slide14

Notes from Listening

Slide15

Minuet and Trio

Usually as the 3

rd

movement of symphonies and quartets

Triple meter and moderate

A(m)B(t)A(m) - trio quieter usuallySTRUCTURE:Listen to Mozart’s Eine kleine

Nactmusik

3

rd

Movement

Slide16

Haydn’s Symphony No. 94 in G Major 2

nd

Movement

Notes:

Slide17

Rondo

Independent or as a movement

Lively, regular and conclusive

Tuneful main theme (usually simple) that returns in alternation

STRUCTURE:

Sonata-Rondo STRUCTURE: ABA – Dev - ABA

Slide18

Classical Symphony

Origin from 17

th

century opera overtures

Extended – 20-45 minutes

Haydn wrote many of the early symphoniesUsually 4 movements with range of contrasts1. fast dramatic (usually sonata form)2. slow lyrical (sonata form, ABA, or T+V), diff key3. dancelike 4. fast heroic (sonata or sonata-rondo)

Slide19

Classical Concerto

3 movement work for instrumental soloist and orchestra

Fast (cadenza) (sonata form with 2 expositions)

Slow

Fast (cadenza improvisation) (rondo or sonata-rondo)

then CODA (short)

Interplay of melody lines and cadenzas

Mozart and Beethoven wrote many (star in each on piano)

20-45 minutes

Slide20

Classical Chamber Music

Imitate room setting

2-9 musicians – entertain guests

No conductor

STRING QUARTET – a fine art

Usually 2 violin, viola and cello

Usually 4 movements

Fast

Slow

Minuet

Fast

OR sonata (violin/piano), trio (piano, violin, cello), quintet

Slide21

Sacred Choral Music

Oratorios and masses were most elaborate in 18

th

century

MASS – Haydn wrote most exuberant masses

Classical sacred music mixes classical MELODY-HARMONY and POLYPHONIC IMITATIONOratorios – musical setting of sacred textComic OperaOpera Buffa – Comic Opera (ie La Serva Padrona by Pergolesi, Mozart`s Don Giovanni)