1 2 3 4 5 Africa: Tobacco use among 13 – 15 year olds (GYTS, 1999 – 2008 1 2 3 4 5 Africa: Tobacco use among 13 – 15 year olds (GYTS, 1999 – 2008

1 2 3 4 5 Africa: Tobacco use among 13 – 15 year olds (GYTS, 1999 – 2008 - PowerPoint Presentation

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1 2 3 4 5 Africa: Tobacco use among 13 – 15 year olds (GYTS, 1999 – 2008 - PPT Presentation

Country Years Current Cigarette Smoking Current Use of other Tobacco products     Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Botswana 20012008 83143 104181 65109 ID: 1044940

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6. Africa: Tobacco use among 13 – 15 year olds (GYTS, 1999 – 2008)Country Years Current Cigarette Smoking Current Use of other Tobacco products   Total %Boys %Girls %Total %Boys %Girls %Botswana2001/20088.3/14.310.4/18.16.5/10.99.5/15.210.0/16.39.1/14.3B/Faso2001/200619.0/8.426.1/14.111.6/2.46.9/7.27.9/9.36.3/4.8Ghana 2000/20064.2/2.75.0/2.83.1/2.314.6/10.413.6/10.115.5/10.1Kenya 2001/20076.6/8.28.7/11.24.7/5.28.9/10.19.0/8.28.9/11.4Lesotho 2002/20089.2/10.116.6/11.84.8/7.514.8/19.512.3/20.414.8/17.9Malawi 2000/200524/1.74.2/2.00.9/1.414.7/8.614.4/8.815.2/8.3Mali 2001/200823.5/9.541.8/18.64.6/1.79.1/9.113.1/14.84.8/4.2Mauritania2001/200614.8/19.519.8/20.38.8/18.314.9/18.015.8/18.413.4/17.3Mauritius 2003/200813.2/13.719.8/20.37.7/7.7NANANAMozambique2002/20073.1/2.75.0/4.51.4/1.25.8/8.25.4/9.66.0/6.8Niger 2001/200614.8/6.322.4/11.76.1/1.17.6/6.66.7/6.17.5/7.0Nigeria 2000/20087.0/4.17.7/6.83.3/1.214.0/23.318.6/23.99.4/17.5Senegal 2002/200713.2/7.520.2/12.14.4/2.75.4/9.37.3/11.72.9/7.7Seychelles 2002/200726.8/21.529.9/23.223.9/20.09.3/10.513.0/10.65.5/9.2South Africa 1999/200217.6/14.820.0/21.015.3/10.611.8/13.115.7/14.89.4/11.9Swaziland 2001/20056.4/5.610.4/8.93.4/3.26.8/7.58.9/8.55.2/6.9Togo 2002/200711.0/6.214.9/9.14.0/1.78.7/10.49.5/12.17.1/7.4Uganda 2002/20073.2/5.23.7/5.72.6/4.29.7/13.39.7/14.39.8/12.0Zambia 2002/20079.2/6.89.4/6.78.7/6.817.7/22.817.1/22.817.3/22.8Zimbabwe 1999/2003/200810.7/4.1/3.211.6/6.1/4.89.9/3.2/1.59.5/6.6/9.611.0/8.4/10.98.4/4.8/7.56

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9. Cigarettes and Beyond: Testing Tobacco Products Around the World Submitted by: Patricia Richter, PhD, DABT - CDC, and Gemma Vestal, JD, MPH, MBA, RN - WHO WHO Tobacco Laboratory Network - (TobLabNet) in six WHO regionsMeasure in traditional cigarette (1) Nicotine (2) humectants (3) toxic and cancer causing chemicals like ammonia and benzene.Measure in Electronic nicotine delivery systems (e-cigarette) study tobacco products like cigarette, cigars and smokeless tobacco and e-cigarette vapourIntegrating Tobacco Surveys into National Surveillance SystemElectronic cigarette and liquid nicotine 9

10. Integration of Tobacco Questionnaire Survey into National Surveillance10

11. Tracking accurate data in the World and West Africa 11

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13. Global Causes of Blindness due to Eye Diseases and Uncorrected Refractive Errors 13

14. Projected worldwide cost of reduced productivity due to visual impairment caused by eye diseases, 2000 – 2020 (estimated in the 1990s)14

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16. Ebola’s mental-health wounds linger in AfricaHealth-care workers struggle to help people who have been traumatized by the epidemic.Sara Reardon03 March 201516

17. Practices in West Africa to care for children and adults with behavioral, psychological and mental disordersHanim Edoo Terre des hommes, Switzerland hanimedoo@gmail.com +41787970975Formal elements of the mental health systems in West Africa Government & Financing17

18. Structures for Mental Health Services 18

19. Human Resources per 100,000 population19

20. Oral Health in the African Region: Progress and perspectives of the Regional StrategyCharlotte Faty Ndiaye.A. Oral health status of people in AfricaDental cariesPeriodontal diseasesNoma: (cancrum oris)Oral manifestations of HIV/AIDSOral cancers and precancerous lesionsB. Current status of oral health care systemsthere is an acute lack of recent, valid, reliable and comparable data for the African Region;access to oral health services that are affordable and of appropriatequality is limited;the dentist to population ratio varieswidely, but is generally low;not all Ministries of Healthincorporate an oral healthdepartment;20

21. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES: AN UNDERRECOGNIZED CONTRIBUTION TO NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASESRosana E. N orman* , D avid O. Carpenter, James Scott, Marie Noel Brunea and Peter D. SlyDE GRUYTER DOI 10.1515/reveh-2012-0033      Rev Environ Health 2013; 28(1): 59–65IARC – 109 agents known; 65 probable, 275 possible human carcinogens found in food, water and airReference: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans 2012:P – dioxin: 2,3,7,8 dibenzo – p – dioxin upregulates 114 genes Downregulates 196 genesReference: Puga A, Maier A, Medvedovic M. The transcriptional signature of dioxin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2000;119:1182-8.Prenatal exposure to organophosphates affects cognitive development in children born to mothers that carry PON, Q19, QR/RR genotype.Reference: Engel S M et al. prenatal exposure to organophosphates, paraoxonase 1, and cognitive development in childhood. Environ Health Perspect 2011:119:1182-8.Asthma – exposure to foetus, respiratory viral infection, aeroltagen, environmental tobacco smoke, indoor and air pollution poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)Type 2 Diabetes, hypertension – dioxin, PCBs arsenic, organochlorine, pesticides, body mass index, lead, tobacco * Importance of pesticide management, e-waste management, municipal solid waste management in Africa21

22. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS Endocrine DisruptorsOccupationEffectReferencePthalateExposure of mothers during pregnancy; occupation not specifiedHypospadias (urogenital congenital anomalies affecting baby boys)1, 5Alkylphenolic compoundsPhthalatesPCBDioxinsMotor vehicle mechanicsPaper makersPaintersForestry and logging workersFurniture manufacture workers Male breast cancer2BPAMale factory workersMale sexual dysfunction3PhthalatesPlastic workers6-fold increased risk of testicular cancer2 times increased risk of breast cancer among the women working in plastic and rubber industry4, 622

23. Sources of endocrine disruptors SourcesCategorySubstancesIncineration, landfillPolychlorinated Compounds (from industrial production or by-products of mostly banned substances)Polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated biphenylsAgricultural runoff / Atmospheric transportOrganochlorine Pesticides (found in insecticides, many now phased out)DDT, dieldrin, lindaneAgricultural runoffPesticides currently in useAtrazine, trifluralin, permethrinHarboursOrganotins (found in antifoulants used to paint the fulls of ships)TributyltinIndustrial and municipal effluentsAlkylphenols (Surfactants - certain kinds of detergents used for removing oil - and their metabolites)NonylphenolIndustrial effluentPhthalates (found in placticizers)Dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalateMunicipal effluent Agricultural runoff Natural Hormones (Produced naturally by animals); synthetic steroids (found in contraceptives)Estradiol, estrone, and testosterone; ethynyl estradiolPulp mill effluentsPhytoestrogens (found in plant material)Isoflavones, lignans, coumestansConsumer productsCosmetics, personal care products, cleanersParabens, phthalates, glycol ethers, fragrances, cyclosiloxanes23

24. Dirty Dozen List of Endocrine Disruptorskeep-a-breast.org ewg.orgBPADioxinAtrazinePhthalatesPerchlorateFire retardantsLeadArsenicMercuryPerfluorinated chemicalsOrganophosphate PesticidesGlycol Ethers- OBESOGEN HYPOTHESIS 24

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