Photosynthesis Chapter 8

Photosynthesis Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Chapter 8 - Start

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Photosynthesis Chapter 8 - Description

8-1: Energy & Life. What is energy?. The ability to do work.. What is the difference between autotrophs & heterotrophs?. . Autotrophs = make their own food. . Heterotrophs = can’t make their own food; must eat other organisms. ID: 694044 Download Presentation

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Photosynthesis Chapter 8




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Presentations text content in Photosynthesis Chapter 8

Slide1

Photosynthesis

Chapter 8

Slide2

8-1: Energy & Life

What is energy? The ability to do work.

What is the difference between autotrophs & heterotrophs?

Autotrophs = make their own food Heterotrophs = can’t make their own food; must eat other organisms

-LEARNING TARGETS:

Define

energy.

- Why

is energy so important to living things?

- Explain

the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs.

- Draw

and label the basic structure of an ATP molecule.

- Demonstrate

how ATP energy releases energy.

Slide3

8-1: Energy & Life

Living things use chemical energy to do work.Chemical energy is found in two places:

A. Electrons

(changing energy levels is how light is produced) B. Chemical Bonds - make a bond = store energy

-

break a bond = release energy

Slide4

8-1: Energy & Life

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the primary energy molecule used by living things.

It is a special nucleotide with three parts:

The 5-carbon sugar called ribose

The nitrogenous base called adenine3 phosphate groups (this where the energy is stored)

Slide5

8-1: Energy & Life

The ADP/ATP Cycle:

* This reaction is reversible!

Slide6

8.2: Overview of Photosynthesis

The Basic Reaction:

LEARNING TARGETS:

Write

the overall reaction (unbalanced) for photosynthesis using chemical symbols for reactants and products

.

Identify

the reactants and products for each stage in a photosynthesis

diagram. Explain their functions.

Slide7

8.2: Overview of Photosynthesis

The steps of photosynthesis are placed into groups:

Light-dependent Reactions

– releases O

2 & creates products that will be used in the next stepLight-independent Reactions – Uses the products of the L-D reactions & CO2 to make sugars

* The light-independent reactions are also known as the

Calvin Cycle

.

Slide8

8.2: Overview of Photosynthesis

What is NADPH & NADP+? NADP+ is an e- carrier. It is called NADPH when it is carrying an e-. These electrons will help power the Calvin Cycle

NADPH

Light-Dependent Ractions

Calvin Cycle (Light-Independent Reactions)

NADP+

Slide9

8.2: Overview of Photosynthesis

How do plants capture the energy in light? They use pigments like

chlorophyll

.

What does chlorophyll look like? A phospholipid with a magnesium atom instead of P.

Mg

Polar Head

Nonpolar Tails

Chlorophyll molecules are found in clusters called

photosystems

.

Slide10

8.2: Overview of Photosynthesis

What happens to chlorophyll when light hits it? An electron gets excited (jumps up an energy level or two) & pops off!

How is the electron replaced?

A H2O molecule is split by light in a process called photolysis. This process donates an e- to the chlorophyll molecule & creates the waste product of O

2

.

H

2

O

e-

O

2

(waste)

H

+

(to be used later)

Mg

e

-

(to be used later)

e-

Slide11

8.2: Overview of Photosynthesis

What is a pigment?

A substance that absorbs some colors of light, but reflects others.

Why is chlorophyll green?

It reflects green light.What colors does chlorophyll absorb best?

Blues

,

Reds

&

Violets

Slide12

8-3: The Details

Review of Chloroplast Structure:1. Thylakoid Membranes

- the light-dependent reactions occur here

Stroma

- the Calvin Cycle occurs here

LEARNINNG TARGETS:

-

Label

the primary components, or thylakoid and stroma in a chloroplast.

- Explain

why the pigment chlorophyll captures so much light energy.

- Label

the 2 stages (reactions) of photosynthesis given a diagram of a chloroplast.

- Fill

in the reactants and products for each stage in

a photosynthesis

diagram.

Slide13

8-3: The Details

What happens during the light-dependent reactions?

Water is split (a.k.a. photolysis)

2. O

2 is made as a waste product during photolysis.

3.

Some of the H

+

is used to make ATP by an electron transport chain

High energy e

-

& some H+ are picked up by an electron carrier called NADP+ (NADPH).

The NADPH & ATP will be used to power the Calvin Cycle (light-independent reactions).

Slide14

8-3: The Details

What happens during the light-independent reactions (Calvin Cycle)?

With the help of the energy stored in the ATP & the NADPH made during the light-dependent reactions, CO

2 from the air is used to make sugars.

Slide15

8-3: The Details

What factors can affect photosynthesis?

Amount of water

- plants have developed ways to conserve water like waxy coatings on their leaves

Temperature

- warmer is better, but if it gets too hot, the enzymes used during photosynthesis will denature

Light intensity

- brighter is better, but once the saturation point is met, the rate of photosynthesis is unaffected by increased light intensity

Slide16

8-3: The Details

Saturation Point

Enzymes denatured past this point.


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