Response to Active Shooter Events

Response to Active Shooter Events Response to Active Shooter Events - Start

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Response to Active Shooter Events - Description

Presented by J. Pete Blair, Ph.D.. Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training (ALERRT). Texas State University. . Outline. Disaster Response Psychology. Defining and Identifying Active Shooter Events (ASE). ID: 697359 Download Presentation

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Response to Active Shooter Events




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Presentations text content in Response to Active Shooter Events

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Response to Active Shooter Events

Presented by J. Pete Blair, Ph.D.Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training (ALERRT)Texas State University

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Outline

Disaster Response PsychologyDefining and Identifying Active Shooter Events (ASE)Civilian ASE Response Policy

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Disaster Response

The background science of how people behave in high stress events

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Three Stages of Disaster Response

Denial

DeliberationDecisive MomentRipley, A. (2008).

The Unthinkable: Who Survives When Disaster Strikes And Why

. New York: Three Rivers Press.

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Denial

When in a disaster, many people do not admit that is a disaster or underestimate the severityIt is common for people to delay taking actionThis delay costs time and lives

So why do people do it?Normalcy BiasSocial Proof

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Denial

Normalcy BiasWe expect things to be like they always are

A new situation is not expected The brain will first try to describe the new situation as a normal oneIt takes time and data for the brain to recognize that we are not in a normal situation

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Denial

Social Proof (also linked to diffusion of responsibility)In novel or ambiguous situations we look to others for information on how to actIf others are doing nothing, you will tend to do nothing

If others are acting, you will tend to act

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Denial/Deliberation

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Deliberation

Once people have moved past the denial phase, they enter the deliberation phaseYou must decide what to doThis is a problem

Your brain is probably not functioning well because of the stress

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Deliberation:

Your BrainC System

RefleCtiveThinking brainFlexibleRational

SlowX System

RefleXive

Reacting Brain

Fixed

Emotional

Fast

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Deliberation

Stress Response PhysiologyAdrenaline is dumped into the bloodstreamHeart and breathing rates increase

Blood is shunted to the large muscles and essential organsCortisol is dumped into the blood – constricts blood vesselsBlood pressure spikesYou are stronger, faster, and will bleed less

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Deliberation

Stress Response Side EffectsYour C brain is seriously impairedVision narrows

Auditory exclusionTime distortion

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Deliberation

When your C system is shut down, you are left with your X systemThe default X system responses are Fight

Flight FreezeThese are pretty good responses – but unfocused

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Deliberation

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Deliberation

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Deliberation

So what do we do?Keep your C system functioning longerTry to calm yourself

Combat breathingShift your emotionUse your C system to program your X systemThink through likely events and responses to them before a disasterPractice your actions

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Decisive Moment

Once a decision is madeIt is time to actSo act! – With purpose!

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Active Shooter Events

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Active Shooter Event Definition

An active shooter event involves one or more persons engaged in killing or attempting to kill multiple people in an area occupied by multiple unrelated individuals.

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The Shooter

There is no set “Profile”MindsetDeliberate, Focused,

Uncaring - DetachedCoward - BullyMany kill themselves when confronted by the police

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Characteristics of AS Situations

Event happens quickly Can happen anywherePost offices

BusinessesSchoolsMilitary basesChurchesHospitals

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Signs of an ASE

Hear or see gunshotsBodies on the floor / bloodied victimsLot of yelling, screaming, praying, disbelief, denial

People running and hiding

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Fort Hood, TX (2009)

1 Shooter

12 Killed

31 Injured

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Reliable Metals, AL (2009)

1 Shooter

Started by killing his family

Went mobile shooting random peopleEnded up at his former employer

Committed suicide

10 Dead

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Edmond, OK

Post Office (1986)

Postal Employee

Killed 14Wounded 6Killed Himself

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Columbine Video – 13 Killed – 21 Wounded

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Mumbai – at least 172 Killed

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Number of Deaths

The number of deaths is affected by two factorsHow quickly the police respondHow quickly the shooter can find victims

ALERRT trains police how to respond quicklyWe are training you now to slow the rate at which the shooter can find victims

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Response

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Denial

Need to get past this phase as quickly as possibleIf you hear gunshots of something that could be gunshots, act as if it is an active shooterGo straight to deliberation

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Deliberation

3 options based upon 2 of the X system basic responsesFlightAvoid

DenyFightDefendFreeze – Always the wrong choice

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Deliberation

The event will happen very quicklyYou will not have time to develop new plansYou must plan in advanceIf you do not have a plan beforehand the delay in deciding what to do may cost you and others their lives

Failure to plan is planning to fail

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Deliberation

The Basic PlanAvoid the confrontation

Deny access to your locationDefend yourself

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Avoid

Be vigilant/awareKnow escape routes for your locationExitsWindows

StairwellsDecide to leave at the first opportunity and report

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Deny

Lock doorsBarricade access pointsDoor stops

FurnitureRope doors closedCover interior windowsDarken the roomGo back into Avoid mode

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Defend

The Active Shooter is trying to kill you!If you can’t flee, you must fight!

Use a “pack” mentalitySwarm the shooterDo not stopUse whatever weapons you haveAttack weak spots (Throat, eyes, groin)

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Defend

Get as close as you can to the access point before the shooter entersTry to get a hold of the gun and get it pointed away from people

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Defend

HidingThere are very few things that will stop a bullet in most locations

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Defend

Have a survivor’s (not a victim’s) mindsetDecide right now that your are going to do whatever it takes to survive

Getting shot does not mean that you are deadThe fact that you are still alive after the impact means that there is a good chance you will surviveYou can and must keep going!

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People Shot and Killed at VT

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When Police Arrive

Uniformed and plain clothes – multiple agenciesPrimary Goal – Stop the KillingPriority of workFind and confront the shooter

Will NOT stop to help the woundedWill NOT escort people outHelp the woundedClear people from the building

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When the Police Arrive

Understanding the POLICE point of viewThe situation will be chaotic

They do not know who is a victim or suspectThey will treat everyone as a suspect until proven otherwiseOfficers will be experiencing high stress, just like you

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When the Police Arrive

Respond AppropriatelyFollow commands (You might be handcuffed)Keep your hands visible at all times and show your palms

Do not move or move slowly if you must

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Personnel Issues

This will be a traumatic eventExpect mental trauma ShockNightmares

PTSDSurvivor’s guiltYou need a critical incident stress management plan

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Policy

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Model ASE Policy

Our organization places the highest priority on the preservation of the lives of our employees and customers. If an active shooter event should occur, our employees shall use the Avoid, Deny, Defend model.If it is safe for them to do so, employees should exit the facility immediately to AVOID the shooter(s).

If employees are unable to safely exit the facility, they should lock themselves in their current location and barricade the door to DENY the shooter(s) access.In the event that employees are unable to utilize the AVOID and DENY strategies successfully, they should DEFEND themselves using whatever means are available.Regardless of the option(s) utilized, employees shall call emergency services (911) as soon as it is safe to do so.

In the event of an active shooter incident, all employees will be required to undergo mandatory mental health counseling.

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Questions?

Pete Blair, Ph.D.blair@alerrt.org or jpeteblair@gmail.com

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