Urbanisation - Presentation

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and the growth of Mega Cities. Shanghai – pop 18 million 2010. TO BE MEGA-CITIES IN 2015 . Country Urban agglomeration 1950 1975 2000 2015 . Japan............................ Tokyo 6 920 19 771 26 444 27 190 .

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and the growth of Mega Cities

Shanghai – pop 18 million 2010Slide2


Country Urban agglomeration 1950 1975 2000 2015 Japan............................ Tokyo 6 920 19 771 26 444 27 190

Bangladesh .................. Dhaka 417 2 173 12 519 22 766

India ............................ Mumbai (Bombay) 2 981 7 347 16 086 22 577

Brazil........................... São Paulo 2 528 10 333 17 962 21 229

India ............................ Delhi 1 391 4 426 12 441 20 884

Mexico......................... Mexico City 2 883 10 691 18 066 20 434

United States ............... New York 12 339 15 880 16 732 17 944

Indonesia ..................... Jakarta 1 452 4 814 11 018 17 268

India ............................ Calcutta 4 446 7 888 13 058 16 747

Pakistan ....................... Karachi 1 028 3 990 10 032 16 197

Nigeria......................... Lagos 288 1 890 8 665 15 966

United States ............... Los Angeles 4 046 8 926 13 213 14 494

China ........................... Shanghai 5 333 11 443 12 887 13 598 Argentina..................... Buenos Aires 5 042 9 144 12 024 13 185

Philippines................... Metro Manila 1 544 5 000 9 950 12 579

China ........................... Beijing 3 913 8 545 10 839 11 671

Brazil........................... Rio de Janeiro 2 965 7 963 10 652 11 543

Egypt ........................... Cairo 2 410 6 079 9 462 11 531

Turkey ......................... Istanbul 1 077 3 601 8 953 11 362

Japan............................ Osaka 4 147 9 844 11 013 11 013

China ........................... Tianjin 2 374 6 160 9 156 10 319Slide3

Megacities are often

primate citiesPrimate cities (at least double the pop of the second largest city in the country) are typical of many LEDCs and NICs.

The city dominates the country’s urban system and economy.

Advantages and disadvantages of primate cities?Slide4

List of Primate Cities


Sustainable city

Maintain population, particularly economically active people. Develop human resources.

Economic growth.

Infrastructure and urban services.

Quality of life.

Environmental impact. Ecological footprint.

Circular metabolism.

Green design and architecture.

Energy efficiencies. Carbon neutral city. (



Land UseSlide7

What do we use land for?





And Many More!Slide8

Urban Land Use Model – burgess

The Model above is a typical Land Use model. What are zones A, B, C and D? Why? Slide9

A – the centre, known as the

Central Business District (CBD). Shops, offices, banks and main services are found here.B – the Inner City area, older housing (19th Century). Today this is more modernised.C – the


, mostly house built in the 1920s or 1930s. People still wanted to live near the centre for work but no more room.

D – the

Edge of City

, often more leafy areas. It has been common in recent times for shops and industry to move here to reduce


in the city, and for the cheaper land and better accessibility. Slide10

A – THE CBDSlide11


High cost of landHigh-Order shops, public buildings, entertainment etc.Often divided into districts eg. Entertainment area

Also can be ‘zoned vertically’ – ground floor shops, first floor offices etc; cheaper rent

Much traffic in certain areas

Usually the oldest and tallest buildings

Low population density normally

Mostly younger people without familiesSlide12



Quite high cost of landWas C19th terraced housing and factories, now with urban regeneration, some new housing and industryOften see ‘grid-iron’ pattern of streets

High traffic, due to factories and population

Generally C19th buildings, some new

Tall buildings; were packed together (high density), now less so

High population, although lowering. People moved due to crime etc., but now many are returning

In C20th generally poorer groups of people, immigrants etc., although now much more of a variety Slide14

C – SUBURBSSlide15


Middle and high cost housing; generally low land value but high building valueDetached/ semi detached housing; housing estates; parks; golf courses etc.Access roads, maybe cul-de-sacs, crescents etc.

Little traffic, away from main roads

Mostly C20



Low buildings and low density as low cost of land; also need space for greenery etc.

Population density is quite high, tends to be more affluent groups – middle aged couples and families etc.Slide16



Quite low land value, but getting higher – accessible and zonedModern factories, offices; middle and high order shops; lots of space for car parking

High traffic at rush hours and peak shopping times

Very new buildings, generally low density

Low population density

Study models on pages 492, 493, 494 and 495. In what ways to land use models/ patterns contrast in MEDCs and LEDCs?Slide18


PVLIDistance-decayBid Rent TheoryUrban morphologySlide19

Developed in the 1930s by Homer Hoyt this model took into consideration road, river and rail links which may affect the zoning. It is sometimes called the sector model. Describe it using the key to help you.

The Hoyt ModelSlide20



The urban area expanded outwards from the original site which is the CBD.



Rent in the CBD became too expensive for people. In the suburbs there was more land and it was cheaper. Only businesses could afford to stay in the CBD.


Concentrations of similar land uses

One part of the urban area may have all the advantages for industrial location so that a lot of factories want to locate there; but few people want to live next door to a factory, so the residential areas are located elsewhere.

There are 3 explanations for these land use patterns.Slide21



Create a table to show similarities and differences between the two models.Slide22

It is a model so may not be able to be applied to a specific city.

Like the Burgess model it was designed before the car so doesn’t take commuting into considerationPhysical features may limit the growth of a zone.

Can you give an example?


Land Use ShanghaiSlide24

Basic urban model for an LEDC city.

Higher cost housing and higher class residential areas located centrally. Historical core of colonial city. Rapid urban growth expanding the peripheral areas.Slide25

The CBD is always in the middle

There is no zone of medium class residential in the LEDC model

The poorest housing is found of the edge of the LEDC city

The largest zone is the shanty town. Often called squatter settlements, slums or favelas

You should have identified:Slide26

Urban growth is too rapid for planners and for the city to provide basic urban infrastructure, housing and services. Peripheral areas


by poor quality housing and spontaneous settlements as immigrants attempt to satisfy their basic needs of housing and employment through the informal economy.Slide27

Urban stress and sustainable solutions in LEDC cities


Mexico City


Rio de JaneiroSlide28

What are the challenges facing an (LEDC) city?

Housing the urban poorSocial deprivation, crime and inequality


Air / water pollution

Waste management



Water and food supply

Public spaceSlide29

Caracas - VenezuelaSlide30


– Rio de Janeiro BrazilSlide31

Squatter Settlements

Residential areas which have developed without legal claims to the land and/or permission from the concerned authorities to build; as a result of their illegal or semi-legal status, infrastructure and services are usually inadequate.

30% of the urban population of the world live in squatter settlements. 1 billion people!Slide32


Watch Richard


TED presentation on his book

Shadow Cities

He presents an empathic and positive view of squatter settlements and their role in modern cities. Slide33

The role of the Informal Sector

This whole process of urbanisation

and urban growth is a sum of millions of people’s individual decisions, aspirations, hopes and desire to provide for their loved ones.

As the governments are unable to provide solutions, then these individuals, faced with these problems are struggling to find their own solutions to their housing and employment needs.

This is why squatter settlements play such a vital role in the process of urban growth we are witnessing now in the world.Slide34

Is it possible that squatter settlements, shanty towns,



, slums are part of the solution?

Or perhaps is it true that they are a potent symbol of the failure of society to address the basic needs of the majority and it must be the responsibility of the public sector to provide housing for its citizens?

Slums of hope or slums of despair?Slide35

Problems of the informal economy

Low profit

No money

No investment

Low outputSlide36

Turner’s model can be linked to a intra-urban movement of migrantsSlide37

Planet Geography pg 534

Huge gaps between rich and poor in LEDCs?Shanty next to high riseTNCs create jobs – only for educatedThe rich get richer....LEDCs rapidly changing?


Shanghai growth

Globalisation and ‘copying’ MEDC growthSlide38


Why have the problems developed?

What is the impact on the city? (environmental, economic, social)Slide40


Some of the worst air pollution is now in LEDCs or ‘NICs’ – figure 11.131 pg 546Beijing example; page 551Slide41

Urban Microclimates

A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area. The term may refer to areas as small as a few square feet (for example a garden bed) or as large as many square milesWhy might an urban area have a ‘microclimate’?What is meant by an ‘urban heat island?’ – q block 11O page 551.Slide42

Other ‘Social Stresses’

Using pages 556-565 list the ‘other’ social stresses which appear in urban areas.Complete questions 1,2,3,4,7,8,10 and 12 pg 566Slide43

Urban Stress in London

Usual problems – pollution, traffic, overcrowdingHuge gap between rich and poorInner city urban blight – poor, old housing (East End), schoolsHigh rise estates to make up for shortfall (600,000)These areas associated with crime, violence and


Urban Stress in London

Huge range of migrants (former port city)1960s from former colonies in Asia (Pakistan, Sri Lanka); East Africa (Uganda) and in the 1980/90s large numbers of refugees from eg Afghanistan, Iraq.Creates ‘urban villages’ where people cluster, creates a ‘hotbed’ of culture in LondonHas led to some hostility and racism

History of riots in the city – Brixton (25% population of different racial background)Slide45


Not ALL bad!‘In a 100m stretch in Finsbury Park can be seen an Irish pub, Indian newsagents, food shop and restaurant, West Indian businesses, West African restaurant, Chinese take away, Lebanese flower shop, Jewish run ironmongers, Italian restaurant, Spanish off-licence... This rich mix of cultures rubbing alongside one another that characterises contemporary London and adds so much to its vitality’Read pgs570-577; q’s 1, 5, 7, 8, 9Slide46

The Sustainable City

Can a city be ‘sustainable’?‘A sustainable city, or eco-city

is a city designed with consideration of environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution - CO


, methane and water pollution


How does a city attempt to manage the problems it faces?

Socially sustainable housing management strategy.

Environmentally sustainable pollution management strategy.

A strategy to control the growth of the city.

Also perhaps sustainable management related to social welfare, waste, energy, transport etcSlide48

Sustainable Housing

What is done to provide socially sustainable housing for the urban poor?Affordable housing provided by government or private sector

Upgrading squatter settlements

Slum clearance and relocation

Site and service schemes

Loans for people to buy housing

Other options in London, Shanghai

or Beijing?

- Can a ‘system’ be in place?

Study figure 11.238



Complete q’s 2 and 3



London – Sustainable?

TASK:Read pgs 584-590 and make a table







Evaluation of strategy

For example – a relocation and re-housing project

Availability of land

Distance from employment for residents

Cost of projects

Poor standard of housing

Lack of urban services provided

Social fabric of squatter settlement broken up

Pointless as residents of squatter settlements have already built their dwellings

Alternative is to upgrade existing squatter settlements and integrate them into the city.