and the growth of Mega Cities. Shanghai – pop 18 million 2010. TO BE MEGA-CITIES IN 2015 . Country Urban agglomeration 1950 1975 2000 2015 . Japan............................ Tokyo 6 920 19 771 26 444 27 190 .
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Presentation on theme: "Urbanisation"— Presentation transcript:
and the growth of Mega Cities
Shanghai – pop 18 million 2010Slide2
TO BE MEGA-CITIES IN 2015
Country Urban agglomeration 1950 1975 2000 2015 Japan............................ Tokyo 6 920 19 771 26 444 27 190
Developed in the 1930s by Homer Hoyt this model took into consideration road, river and rail links which may affect the zoning. It is sometimes called the sector model. Describe it using the key to help you.
The Hoyt ModelSlide20
The urban area expanded outwards from the original site which is the CBD.
Rent in the CBD became too expensive for people. In the suburbs there was more land and it was cheaper. Only businesses could afford to stay in the CBD.
Concentrations of similar land uses
One part of the urban area may have all the advantages for industrial location so that a lot of factories want to locate there; but few people want to live next door to a factory, so the residential areas are located elsewhere.
There are 3 explanations for these land use patterns.Slide21
Create a table to show similarities and differences between the two models.Slide22
It is a model so may not be able to be applied to a specific city.
Like the Burgess model it was designed before the car so doesn’t take commuting into considerationPhysical features may limit the growth of a zone.
Can you give an example?
Land Use ShanghaiSlide24
Basic urban model for an LEDC city.
Higher cost housing and higher class residential areas located centrally. Historical core of colonial city. Rapid urban growth expanding the peripheral areas.Slide25
The CBD is always in the middle
There is no zone of medium class residential in the LEDC model
The poorest housing is found of the edge of the LEDC city
The largest zone is the shanty town. Often called squatter settlements, slums or favelas
You should have identified:Slide26
Urban growth is too rapid for planners and for the city to provide basic urban infrastructure, housing and services. Peripheral areas
by poor quality housing and spontaneous settlements as immigrants attempt to satisfy their basic needs of housing and employment through the informal economy.Slide27
Urban stress and sustainable solutions in LEDC cities
Rio de JaneiroSlide28
What are the challenges facing an (LEDC) city?
Housing the urban poorSocial deprivation, crime and inequality
Air / water pollution
Water and food supply
Caracas - VenezuelaSlide30
– Rio de Janeiro BrazilSlide31
Residential areas which have developed without legal claims to the land and/or permission from the concerned authorities to build; as a result of their illegal or semi-legal status, infrastructure and services are usually inadequate.
30% of the urban population of the world live in squatter settlements. 1 billion people!Slide32
He presents an empathic and positive view of squatter settlements and their role in modern cities. Slide33
The role of the Informal Sector
This whole process of urbanisation
and urban growth is a sum of millions of people’s individual decisions, aspirations, hopes and desire to provide for their loved ones.
As the governments are unable to provide solutions, then these individuals, faced with these problems are struggling to find their own solutions to their housing and employment needs.
This is why squatter settlements play such a vital role in the process of urban growth we are witnessing now in the world.Slide34
Is it possible that squatter settlements, shanty towns,
, slums are part of the solution?
Or perhaps is it true that they are a potent symbol of the failure of society to address the basic needs of the majority and it must be the responsibility of the public sector to provide housing for its citizens?
Slums of hope or slums of despair?Slide35
Problems of the informal economy
Turner’s model can be linked to a intra-urban movement of migrantsSlide37
Planet Geography pg 534
Huge gaps between rich and poor in LEDCs?Shanty next to high riseTNCs create jobs – only for educatedThe rich get richer....LEDCs rapidly changing?
Globalisation and ‘copying’ MEDC growthSlide38
Why have the problems developed?
What is the impact on the city? (environmental, economic, social)Slide40
Some of the worst air pollution is now in LEDCs or ‘NICs’ – figure 11.131 pg 546Beijing example; page 551Slide41
A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area. The term may refer to areas as small as a few square feet (for example a garden bed) or as large as many square milesWhy might an urban area have a ‘microclimate’?What is meant by an ‘urban heat island?’ – q block 11O page 551.Slide42
Other ‘Social Stresses’
Using pages 556-565 list the ‘other’ social stresses which appear in urban areas.Complete questions 1,2,3,4,7,8,10 and 12 pg 566Slide43
Urban Stress in London
Usual problems – pollution, traffic, overcrowdingHuge gap between rich and poorInner city urban blight – poor, old housing (East End), schoolsHigh rise estates to make up for shortfall (600,000)These areas associated with crime, violence and
Urban Stress in London
Huge range of migrants (former port city)1960s from former colonies in Asia (Pakistan, Sri Lanka); East Africa (Uganda) and in the 1980/90s large numbers of refugees from eg Afghanistan, Iraq.Creates ‘urban villages’ where people cluster, creates a ‘hotbed’ of culture in LondonHas led to some hostility and racism
History of riots in the city – Brixton (25% population of different racial background)Slide45
Not ALL bad!‘In a 100m stretch in Finsbury Park can be seen an Irish pub, Indian newsagents, food shop and restaurant, West Indian businesses, West African restaurant, Chinese take away, Lebanese flower shop, Jewish run ironmongers, Italian restaurant, Spanish off-licence... This rich mix of cultures rubbing alongside one another that characterises contemporary London and adds so much to its vitality’Read pgs570-577; q’s 1, 5, 7, 8, 9Slide46
The Sustainable City
Can a city be ‘sustainable’?‘A sustainable city, or eco-city
is a city designed with consideration of environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution - CO
, methane and water pollution
How does a city attempt to manage the problems it faces?
Also perhaps sustainable management related to social welfare, waste, energy, transport etcSlide48
What is done to provide socially sustainable housing for the urban poor?Affordable housing provided by government or private sector
Upgrading squatter settlements
Slum clearance and relocation
Site and service schemes
Loans for people to buy housing
Other options in London, Shanghai
- Can a ‘system’ be in place?
Study figure 11.238
Complete q’s 2 and 3
London – Sustainable?
TASK:Read pgs 584-590 and make a table
CITY CONGESTION CHARGE
45,000 TONNES OF FUEL TO POWER THE
Evaluation of strategy
For example – a relocation and re-housing project
Availability of land
Distance from employment for residents
Cost of projects
Poor standard of housing
Lack of urban services provided
Social fabric of squatter settlement broken up
Pointless as residents of squatter settlements have already built their dwellings
Alternative is to upgrade existing squatter settlements and integrate them into the city.
Urbanisation - Description
and the growth of Mega Cities Shanghai pop 18 million 2010 TO BE MEGACITIES IN 2015 Country Urban agglomeration 1950 1975 2000 2015 Japan Tokyo 6 920 19 771 26 444 27 190 ID: 546435 Download Presentation
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