Photography Requirements. Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture: . Light -- natural light/ambient, flash . Exposure -- aperture (f-stops), shutter speed, depth of field . ID: 568917
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Photography Merit BadgeSlide2
Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture:
Light -- natural light/ambient, flash
Exposure -- aperture (f-stops), shutter speed, depth of field
Composition -- rule of thirds, leading lines, framing, depth
Angle of view
Explain the basic parts and operation of a film camera or digital camera. Explain how an exposure is made when you take a picture.
Discuss with your counselor the differences between a film camera and a digital camera. Describe how computer software allows you to make adjustments to a digital photograph after it is taken.Slide3
Do ONE of the following:
Produce a picture story using the photojournalistic technique of documenting an event. Share your plan with your counselor and get your counselor's input and approval before you proceed. Then, using either a film camera or a digital camera, produce your approved picture story. Process your images and select eight to 12 images that best tell your story. Arrange your images in order, then mount the prints on a poster board. If you are using digital images, you may create a slide show on your computer or produce printouts for your poster board. Share your picture story with your counselor.
Choose a topic that interests you to photograph for an exhibit or display. Get your counselor's approval, then photograph (digital or film) your topic. Process your images. Choose 20 of your favorite images and mount them on poster board. Share your display with your counselor. If you are using digital images, you may create a slide show on your computer or produce printouts for your poster board.
Discuss with your counselor the career opportunities in photography. Pick one that interests you and explain how to prepare for such a career. Discuss with your counselor the education and training such a career would require.Slide4
Basic photography termsDigital camera technologyUnderstand your cameraTake photographsDownload imagesEditing digital photographsDisplay photographs (web, email, printing)CareersSlide5
What is a good image?
In FocusProper ExposurePleasing to the viewerSlide6
Basics of Digital Photography
Compose: This is the creative or artistic part. Arrange all of the elements of the picture within the frame or viewfinder hopefully to produce what should be a pleasing composition.Expose: This is the scientific and mechanical part . Capture the image through the lens of the camera and preserve the image for posterity.Slide7
It’s all about the light!
Basics of Digital PhotographySlide8
It’s all about the Light!
Basics of Digital Photography
light (sunlight)Ambient (light in this room)FlashSlide9
Why do we use
Flash ModeFor dim light or for “filling in” backlit pictures. Most cameras default to auto flash, but you need to know how to manually turn the flash off or on for special conditions. Turn off the flash when it will be useless. For example, photographing a person far away under dim light conditions.Slide11
ISO International Standards Organization
ISO is the film or digital sensors “sensitivity” to the light entering. Each stop in ISO will double or halve the sensitivityExamples of full stops are: 100, 200, 400 or 800
ISO = less
ISO = more
how long the shutter is open and is indicated in fractions of a
of full stops are: 1/125, 1/250, 1/500 or
shutter speeds = less
shutter speeds = more lightSlide13
guidelines for the following outdoor lighting condition @ ISO 400 – f/8
cloudy day without shadows
day, or open shade on a sunny day
heavily overcast day Deep shade
on an bright overcast day
a thunderstorm or a heavily overcast day
Aperture is the size of the lens opening and is referred to as an “f stop”. Higher values represent a smaller aperture, lower values represent a larger aperture Examples of full stops are: f2, f2.8, f4, f5.6, f8, f11 or f16Smaller aperture = less lightLarger aperture = more lightSlide15
Aperture and Shutter Speed
Aperture and shutter speed interact to give a correct exposure.There is a balance between the two.
These settings would give about the same exposure:Slide16
Shutter Speed + Aperture = Exposure
Shutter speed and aperture interact to
is usually the
can be overridden on some cameras by setting the camera to:
user sets the aperture
camera sets the
user sets shutter speed
camera sets the
user sets both speed and aperture.Slide17
Depth of Field -DOFSlide18
Depth of Field -DOF
If the exposure is made with a wide aperture ( like F2.8 ), then objects farther away from the subject are thrown farther out of focus. This effect is referred to as “depth of field”. If the aperture is small (like F22) then objects in the background and foreground will appear sharper.Slide19
White balance adjusts the white color quality of your image. Digital cameras usually have adjustable white balance settings for electronic flash, shade, sunlight, fluorescent lighting and tungsten lighting.Most cameras default to “auto” white balance and some cameras allow it to be set separately.Slide20
The Rule of Thirds
Place important elements of the
where the lines intersect.Slide21
Draw attention to center/foregroundSlide22
Contrast adds interest by emphasizing difference in tone, color texture, sizeSlide23
Lead the viewer’s eyesSlide24
Symmetrical balance – divides image into distinct zones.Slide25
Add or distract from subject.Slide26
Add or distract from subject.Slide27
Try different anglesSlide28
Basic Camera ShotsSlide30
The Amount of SceneSlide31
shooting fast-moving animals such as birds in flight, you may want a shutter speed as high as 1/1250th of a second to freeze your subject.
Proper technique in stabilizing your camera can go a long way
Time Lapse PhotographySlide33
Time Lapse Photography
A higher shutter speed and ISO can be set for stopping action.Slide34
Macro refers to a digital camera function that takes “close-up” pictures—images of objects that are only a few inches away. Most digital cameras have a macro setting and take good macro pictures because of the inherent design of digital cameras.Slide35
Cameras and How They WorkSlide36
Camera settings (language, auto-off, etc.)Timer (so the photographer can be in the picture)Metering (how the camera decides on brightness)Continuous shooting (camera shoots as fast as it can)Best Shot Selector (multiple shots at different settings)Saturation Control (controlling color intensity)Image Sharpening (electronic improvement of shot)Etc.Slide37
Extra storage (memory cards)
Computer interface cable
Optional: lens, Camera bag, tripod, flash, UV
Digital Camera Features and Terminology
You don’t need to know terminology or your camera’s features, you can just shoot “auto” and hope for the best. OR!If you understand your camera and have experience using it’s features, you will take better pictures.Slide39
Understanding Your Camera
What are your camera’s abilities and limitations?What features does it have?You need to read and understand your Camera’s operating manual!You need to have experience shooting pictures and studying the results.Slide40
A pixel is a contraction of the term Picture Element. Digital images are made up of small squares, just like a tile mosaic on your kitchen or bathroom wall. Though a digital photograph looks smooth and continuous just like a regular photograph, it's actually composed of millions of tiny squares as shown below.On the left the full image, on the right the area in the red square magnified to show individual pixels.Slide41
A megapixel is equal to 1 millions pixels. How many megapixels a camera shoots at indicates the maximum size and/or detail of a digital picture. Generally, more pixels are better (and cost more), but it is not only factor that should be considered when choosing a camera.Slide42
Refers to the dimensions of the image, measured in pixels. Pictures taken at smaller sizes require less memory and are suitable for distribution by email or on the web. Conversely, the larger the image, the larger the size at which it can be printed or displayed without loosing quality (becoming “grainy”).Slide43
Image SizePixelsPrint Size (@300dpi)3264 x 24488MP11” x 14”2592 x 1944 5MP8½” x 6½”2048 x 15363MP7” x 5”1600 x 1200 2MP5” x 4”1280 x 9601MP4” x 3”640 x 480 .5MPEmail and WebSlide44
PEG (JPG): The most common format.
This is a compression format that can be saved at various qualities.
TIFF: A “loss-less” compression format of a higher quality that is better for very high quality prints but has larger file size.
RAW: Actual image from the camera sensorSlide45
Practice with Your Camera
The best way to take good pictures is to take a lot of them and to experiment with your camera.
Understand your camera settings.Take pictures and do tests: Take the same picture several times while changing the settings for each shot. Then compare the result. What settings work best under what conditions? What are the characteristics of your camera?Digital pictures are FREE until you print them!Slide46
Practice with Your CameraSlide47
Most cameras use a USB
that connects the camera to the computer.Slide48
Careera in Photography
Wildlife PhotographyNature and wildlife is one of the primary subjects of photography today. The natural beauty that surrounds us in the form of landscapes, plants, and wildlife is a compelling subject to capture in still images.
There is something deeply compelling about wading in an Alaskan stream with Brown Bears and documenting their beauty and behavior.Slide51
Media and Sports Photography
Careers in PhotographySlide53
Products and Advertising Photography
Careers in PhotographySlide54