Psychology Personality and

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Psychology Personality and




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Presentations text content in Psychology Personality and

Slide1

PsychologyPersonality and attitudes

Interactive

lecture ii

Dr Jolanta Babiak

Winter

semester

2017/2018

Slide2

Assigned readingGerrig, R. J. (2012).

Psychology and Life,

New Jersey, Pearson Education, Inc.

chapter

13

Whetten

, D. A., Cameron K. S. (2011).

Developing Management Skills.

New Jersey: Person education,

Inc

.

chapter

1

Slide3

What is personality?“the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustment to the environment” Gordon

Allport

Personality

ways in which an individual reacts to environmental stimuli and interacts with others

Personality

enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior across situations and over time, e.g. energetic, enthusiastic, charismatic, decisive, ambitious, adaptable, courageous, and

industrious

Personality

the psychological qualities of an individual that influence a variety of characteristic behavior patterns across different situations and over time

Best way to describe personality: measurable traits

Slide4

Measuring personalitySelf-report surveysWeaknesses:Lyingi

mpression management

Accuracy: bad mood effect

Observer-rating surveys

If both surveys are strongly correlated the result might be a good predictor of success on the job

Slide5

Personality determinantsIs personality a result of heredity or environmental forces?Heredity approach: personality is the molecular structure of the genes located in the chromosomes

Genetics account for about 50% of the variation in personality

Can personality change?

More changeable in adolescence

More stable in adulthood

Environment accounts for about 40% of the variation in personality

Slide6

Dominating personality model: The Big Five DimensionsConscientiousness –

degree to which a person is dependable, responsible, organized, and forward looking

Extraversion/Introversion

degree to which a person is sociable, talkative, assertive, active, and ambitious

Openness to experience

degree to which a person is imaginative, broad minded, curious, and seeks new experiences

Emotional stability (Neuroticism)

degree to which a person is anxious, depressed, angry, and insecure

Agreeableness

degree to which a person is courteous, likable, good-natured, and flexible

Slide7

The five-factor model

Low end point

Factor

High end point

Quiet,

reserved and shy

Extroversion

Talkative, energetic and sociable

Cold,

quarrelsome and cruel

Agreeableness

Sympathetic, kind, and affectionate

Careless, frivolous and irresponsible

Conscientiousness

Organized, responsible and cautious

Stable,

Calm and contended

Neuroticism

Anxious,

unstable and temperamental

Simple

shallow and unintelligent

Openness to experience

Creative, intellectual and open minded

Slide8

Do you know such people?Have you come across people who always need to be the center of attention?Are self-important?Seem unable to think about others?

Are selfish and self-absorbed?

Difficult colleagues?

Slide9

Narcissism and NPDArroganceExploiting othersGrandiosityInability to tolerate criticism

Indifference to others

Lack of empathy

Preoccupation with power

Trouble with relationships

Slide10

Narcissism as a “normal” traitNarcissism in the extreme is a disorderNarcissism also describes the range of normal behaviorsConfidence

Healthy self-esteem

Skill in “using” power

Slide11

Locus of controlare you a master of your own fate?

Refers to the attitude people develop regarding the extent to which they are in control of their own destinies

Internal locus of control: interpreting the reinforcements as being contingent upon one

s own action

External locus of control: interpreting the reinforcements as being the product of outside forces

Slide12

Characteristics of persons with internal locus of controlInternals are more self-motivatedAre in better control of their own behaviorParticipate more in social activities, including politics

More actively seek information

Are better able to handle complex information

More achievement oriented

More likely try to influence others

More likely to seek and assume leadership positions

Slide13

Self-esteemSelf-esteem may be defined as an individual’s assessment of self-worthhas important consequences on our feelings about

ourselves

negative self-concept

may lead to

anxiety

disorders

obsessive-compulsive

disorder

depression

eating

and personality

disorders

i

n general low self-esteem decreases well-being

Slide14

Core self-evaluationDifferences in scores on the five personality aspects can be explained by a more foundational personality factor: the fundamental evaluation each person has developed about him/herself -

core self-evaluation

Core evaluations influence people

s appraisals about themselves, the world, and

others,

but they operate subconsciously

for

the most part people are not aware of their own core self-evaluations

Slide15

Components of core self-evaluationcore self-evaluation sometimes referred to as positive self-regard;

comprised of four components:

self-esteem,

generalized self-efficacy,

neuroticism,

locus of control

In combination these 4 factors create a single, powerful latent attribute that lies at the foundation of personality manifestations

Slide16

Effects of core self-evaluationEach factor has a slightly different meaning but the shared meaning among them, core self-evaluation, assess the extent to which one possesses positive self-regard, feels valuable, capable, stable and in control

High CSE tend to be more satisfied with their

jobs,

perform more successfully on the job, have higher level of task motivation, persistence, productivity in the task, goal setting and commitment, and energized work behavior

Core self-evaluation is a strong predictor of personality differences, job satisfaction, job performance, and life happiness

Slide17

Questions to think about?Which of the personality characteristics are most desirable in leaders?Which of the personality characteristics are most desirable in

followers?

Is there such phenomenon as an ideal personality

profile?

Can such personality characteristics as narcissism, Machiavellianism, autocratic and dogmatic behaviors be ever useful in an organizational context?

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