scientific study. of language. . The . word ‘language’ here . means language . in general, not a particular language.. According to Robins (1985), linguistics. is concerned with human language as a universal and recognizable . ID: 656683
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What is linguistics?Slide2
Linguistics is the
word ‘language’ here
in general, not a particular language.Slide3
According to Robins (1985), linguistics
is concerned with human language as a universal and recognizable
and of the human faculties perhaps one of
essential to human life as we know it, and one of the most
human capabilities in relation to the whole span
Linguists study language systematically.
the scientific method
analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in
The science of language encompasses more than sounds, grammar, and meaning.
you study linguistics, you are at the crossroads of every discipline
Linguistics as a science
Scientific approaches in the study of linguisticsSlide8
Objectivity means judgment based on observable phenomena and uninfluenced by emotions or personal prejudices.
Objective study of language is hindered by various cultural, social and historical misconceptions about certain languages.Slide9
allows no contradictory remarks or statements, requires that all parts of analysis be consistent with the wholeSlide10
A linguist tries to answer:
How did languages begin and what were the very earliest languages like?
How have languages changed over time? What makes languages change
How is it that we learn our own language as children without anybody teaching us
How do we speak, and how do we understand what people mean?
How are languages organized and what is the best way to describe their organization?Slide12
Scope of linguistics
What does linguistics study?
The scope of Linguistics is
a wide range of fields and topics
studies the production, transmission and reception of speech sounds;
the way sounds are used in individual
Morphology: the study of the formation of words
Morphology is the study of the structure of words.
Morphologists study minimal units of meaning,
, and investigate the possible combinations of
in a language to form words.Slide16
For example, the
" is composed of four morphemes:
perfect, is transformed from an adjective
noun by the addition of
, made negative with
Syntax: the study
Syntax is the level at which we study how words combine to form
combine to form clauses, and clauses join to make sentences.Slide18
Syntax studies the rules for placing the elements
in the sentence such as the nouns/noun
, and adverbial phrases.Slide19
Syntax also attempts to describe how
function in the sentence, i.e. what is their role in the sentence.Slide20
‘boy’ is a noun. However, in each of the
, it functions in different roles:
(b) The old man loved the
In sentence (a), it functions as the subject of the sentence.
In sentence (b), it functions as the object.Slide21
A sentence should be both grammatical and meaningful.
green ideas sleep furiously’ is grammatically
it is not meaningful.Slide22
Semantics is a sub-discipline of Linguistics which focuses on the study of meaning.Slide23
deals with the level of meaning in language. It attempts to
structure of meaning in a language, e.g. how words similar or different
to give an account of both word and
It may be easy to define the meanings of words such as ‘tree’ but
easy to define the meanings of words such as ‘love’ or similar
simply defined as the branch of linguistics dealing with
language in use
and the contexts in which it is
"Pragmatics studies the factors that govern our
language in social interaction and the effects of
Semantics vs. Pragmatics
Language external (society)
What expressions mean
What speakers mean
What is said
What is implied
The use of languageSlide28
Branches of linguistics
Phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics
End of Section
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