Presentations text content in COMIC
is a common form of
(a general term to also include editorial or gag cartoons and comic books or graphic novels).
is now established for the longer and more novel-like coherent story,
is also suggested by Will Eisner .Slide5
FORM & USE
is a medium which combines
text and visual information
of a collated sequence of drawings or
in interrelated panels to display with text in balloons and
to express ideas, brief humor or form a narrative: It can be humorous or satirical but also may take the form of adventure story and even soap-opera continuity strip.
When used to tell a story it has the 3 main
parts of a story: (Setting, Characters, Plot)Slide6
Often published in daily newspapers, with horizontal strips, printed in black-and-white. Sunday newspapers offered longer sequences in special colour section.Web comics/online comics/internet comics, are available on the Internet and reach large audiences. Web comics can make use of an infinite canvas thus not constrained by size or dimensions of a page.Slide7
common stip creators
Strips are written and drawn by a comics artist or cartoonistToday due to technology more and more people express themselves via comic stripsmixed media and digital technology have become common.Slide8
one creator produces
the whole strip.
carries out the script and
an artist (with or without additional assistant artists
the drawing of the art
, one artist
while another does only
backgrounds (common in Japan).
In American superhero comic books,
a penciller lays out the artwork in pencil;
an inker finishes the artwork in ink;
a colourist applies colours
a letterer adds the captions and speech balloons.
Even if many strips are the work of two people, one signature is displayedSlide9
Cartoon Strip as a Medium
A comic strip is considered to be a page-based story-telling through a sequence of frames similar to a filmed sequence of shots soAll strips use the basic film conventions:angle (high, straight, low, canted) zoom in/out shot-reverse shoteyeline matchDirection: left-right, top-bottom (in West)Colour: black and white or coloureduse of shot distance (ELS, LS, MS, MCU, CU, ECU)Slide10
Micro-structures: inter-frame relationships:shot-reverse shotzoom in/out repetition, contrastQ/Amoment-moment action-actionsubject-subjectscene-sceneaspect-aspectnon-sequiturflash-forwardsflashbackSlide11
Macro-structures :Consistent style: narrative structure e.g.beginning (setting/ characters/ actions)middle (problem, effect)possible solution/ cliffhanger ORsimilar to a mainstream film and television e.g. 4-act structuresetup, complication, development, resolution
From Marchant, S. (2006)
The Computer Cartoon Kit (with CD-ROM of images)
. Lewes: Ilex.
Digital images & instructions provided!Slide12
THE MAIN FEATURES
USUALLY RECTANGULAR) USED
TEXT IS USUALLY
arranged in “panels” or boxes. separated out by the “gutter” the empty space surrounding them.
The story (in form of pictures or drawings
The narratives are shown in caption boxes, usually coloured, to differentiate from speech.Slide15
Speech bubbles, usually round or square, use a tail pointing to the character’s mouth to indicate speaking out loud.Text, usually all in capitals
I HAVE THE SOLUTION
scream bubble, with a jagged outline or a thicker line and usually larger Text, bolder than normal letters (the character is screaming).
Broadcast bubbles, with a jagged tail like a lightning flash shape Text,letters sometimes italicised to indicate communication through an electronic device (telephone, radio, TV)
A whisper bubble, with a dashed/dotted outlineText,smaller letters and a paler (grey) writing (the speaker is talking in a softer or quieter tone).
…AND THEN SHE…Slide19
Thought bubbles,cloud-shaped word bubbles(the character is not talking loud)
Action wordssounds can be heard and help the image make an impact. Examples:POW! the sound of a blowBAM! the sound of a hard blow or to show something happening abruptlySKREEECH! a car sliding around a cornerKABOOOM! the sound of an explosionUsually in coloured jagged splats Text all in capitalsExclamations are quite oftenSlide21
Analysing a Comic Strip
Identify modal elements & their reasons for useIdentify target reader and genre Identify stages in the narrativeEvaluate artistry Evaluate representations e.g. stereotypes, non-stereotypesSlide22
Creating a comic strip
Identify purpose, target audience and genre
Create writing content
Use appropriate software to edit comic
format for distribution (e.g. pdf
of the creation
: individual images containing a segment of action often surrounded by a border
a box (usually rectangular) for narration. Captions can give voice to a narrator, convey characters' dialogue or thoughts,
or indicate place or time
The formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named (e.g. cuckoo, sizzle
convey information that goes beyond what could be perceived visually
e.g. sweat beads (for fear or anxiety), light bulb (for idea
: the gap
panels to indicate narrative and temporality;
the major place for meaning making.
indicate dialogue (or thought
MOTION LINES /movement lines
: the abstract lines that appear behind a moving object or person, parallel to its direction of movement, to make it appear as if it is moving quickly.
translated tales of romance, adventure, and politics
the process through which prime
moments in a narrative are broken down into
exaggeration of personal characteristics, usually in picture form
human characteristics to animals or objectsSlide24